Learning from 360-degree film in healthcare simulation: a mixed methods pilot

Christopher Jacobs, Alice Maidwell-Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (SciVal)


Technology that delivers an immersive experience in education offers a viable alternative to in-person teaching. This study aims to compare learning from a clinical encounter viewed in a virtual reality 360-degree headset to that of a traditional monitor by quantifying the user experience and testing what was learnt. Furthermore, experiential learning is described as a key concept in simulation practice, and this is explored using transcripts of participants' experiences with 360-degree video. We could determine no statistical difference between median exam scores between groups (p = 0.25), and there was no correlation found between total immersion and motivational scores with exam performance (Rho = −0.14 p = 0.18, Rho = 0.08 p = 0.31). However, those viewing 360 media reported significantly higher immersion, motivation, and empathy scores (p < 0.05). Domains based upon Kolb’s learning cycle generated themes including engagement, communication, and self-efficacy. 360 video creates an immersive experience with an associated high-value motivational position; however, this could not be translated to an increase in exam scores. There are benefits to perceived learning and emotional content with 360 videos, although, pedagogical theory needs further understanding if educators are to embed new immersive technology in curriculums.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)223-233
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Visual Communication in Medicine
Issue number4
Early online date8 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
I would like to thank Jacob Rigby and Daniel Finnegan who assisted with AIEQ and AIMI development.


  • Medical education
  • immersion
  • simulation
  • technology enhanced learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts


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