We have studied electron states present at the Pb(111) surface above Ar-fillednanocavities created by ion beam irradiation and annealing. Vertical confinement between the parallel crystal and nanocavity surfaces creates a series of quantum well state subbands. Differential conductance data measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy contain additional spectroscopic features within the highest occupied subband, revealing additional quantization. Unexpectedly, reflection at the open boundary where the thin Pb film recovers its bulk thickness gives rise to lateral confinement of electrons.
Muller, M. M., Neel, N., Crampin, S., & Kroger, J. (2016). Lateral electron confinement with open boundaries: quantum well states above nanocavities at Pb(111). Physical Review Letters, 117(13), 1-6. . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.136803