Empirical networks are often globally sparse, with a small average number of connections per node, when compared to the total size of the network. However, this sparsity tends not to be homogeneous, and networks can also be locally dense, for example, with a few nodes connecting to a large fraction of the rest of the network, or with small groups of nodes with a large probability of connections between them. Here we show how latent Poisson models that generate hidden multigraphs can be effective at capturing this density heterogeneity, while being more tractable mathematically than some of the alternatives that model simple graphs directly. We show how these latent multigraphs can be reconstructed from data on simple graphs, and how this allows us to disentangle disassortative degree-degree correlations from the constraints of imposed degree sequences, and to improve the identification of community structure in empirically relevant scenarios.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics