Laminate Design for Optimised In-plane Performance and Ease of Manufacture

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Abstract

New structural efficiency diagrams are presented, showing that current design practice incurs additional mass because: (i) laminate balancing axes are not aligned with principal loading axes and (ii) principal loading ratios vary within a part with fixed ply percentages. These diagrams present significant opportunities for fibre steering and laminate tailoring in aerospace design. Moreover, it is shown that standard ply angles (0°, +45°, −45° and 90°) have incompatible modes of deformation between adjacent sublaminates in their uncured state (during forming); such modes can promote the occurrence of wrinkling defects during manufacture which reduce part strength significantly. A new formulation is presented to enable any standard angle laminate to be replaced by a laminate consisting of two non-standard angles, ±ϕ and ±ψ, with equivalent in-plane stiffness. Non-standard ply angles are shown to promote compatible modes of deformation and offer significant potential, in terms of formability, thereby increasing production rates and reducing the need for so-called manufacturing knockdown factors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-128
JournalComposite Structures
Volume177
Early online date28 Jun 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2017

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Laminates
Formability
Stiffness
Defects
Fibers

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@article{56c2ccaa090544688e88abf3a4768692,
title = "Laminate Design for Optimised In-plane Performance and Ease of Manufacture",
abstract = "New structural efficiency diagrams are presented, showing that current design practice incurs additional mass because: (i) laminate balancing axes are not aligned with principal loading axes and (ii) principal loading ratios vary within a part with fixed ply percentages. These diagrams present significant opportunities for fibre steering and laminate tailoring in aerospace design. Moreover, it is shown that standard ply angles (0°, +45°, −45° and 90°) have incompatible modes of deformation between adjacent sublaminates in their uncured state (during forming); such modes can promote the occurrence of wrinkling defects during manufacture which reduce part strength significantly. A new formulation is presented to enable any standard angle laminate to be replaced by a laminate consisting of two non-standard angles, ±ϕ and ±ψ, with equivalent in-plane stiffness. Non-standard ply angles are shown to promote compatible modes of deformation and offer significant potential, in terms of formability, thereby increasing production rates and reducing the need for so-called manufacturing knockdown factors.",
author = "Mark Nielsen and Kevin Johnson and Andrew Rhead and Richard Butler",
year = "2017",
month = "10",
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doi = "10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.06.061",
language = "English",
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journal = "Composite Structures",
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publisher = "Elsevier Masson",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Laminate Design for Optimised In-plane Performance and Ease of Manufacture

AU - Nielsen, Mark

AU - Johnson, Kevin

AU - Rhead, Andrew

AU - Butler, Richard

PY - 2017/10/1

Y1 - 2017/10/1

N2 - New structural efficiency diagrams are presented, showing that current design practice incurs additional mass because: (i) laminate balancing axes are not aligned with principal loading axes and (ii) principal loading ratios vary within a part with fixed ply percentages. These diagrams present significant opportunities for fibre steering and laminate tailoring in aerospace design. Moreover, it is shown that standard ply angles (0°, +45°, −45° and 90°) have incompatible modes of deformation between adjacent sublaminates in their uncured state (during forming); such modes can promote the occurrence of wrinkling defects during manufacture which reduce part strength significantly. A new formulation is presented to enable any standard angle laminate to be replaced by a laminate consisting of two non-standard angles, ±ϕ and ±ψ, with equivalent in-plane stiffness. Non-standard ply angles are shown to promote compatible modes of deformation and offer significant potential, in terms of formability, thereby increasing production rates and reducing the need for so-called manufacturing knockdown factors.

AB - New structural efficiency diagrams are presented, showing that current design practice incurs additional mass because: (i) laminate balancing axes are not aligned with principal loading axes and (ii) principal loading ratios vary within a part with fixed ply percentages. These diagrams present significant opportunities for fibre steering and laminate tailoring in aerospace design. Moreover, it is shown that standard ply angles (0°, +45°, −45° and 90°) have incompatible modes of deformation between adjacent sublaminates in their uncured state (during forming); such modes can promote the occurrence of wrinkling defects during manufacture which reduce part strength significantly. A new formulation is presented to enable any standard angle laminate to be replaced by a laminate consisting of two non-standard angles, ±ϕ and ±ψ, with equivalent in-plane stiffness. Non-standard ply angles are shown to promote compatible modes of deformation and offer significant potential, in terms of formability, thereby increasing production rates and reducing the need for so-called manufacturing knockdown factors.

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.06.061

U2 - 10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.06.061

DO - 10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.06.061

M3 - Article

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EP - 128

JO - Composite Structures

JF - Composite Structures

SN - 0263-8223

ER -