The area of biomedical imaging is fast becoming an active focus for the utilization of graphene within a variety of imaging modalities. Graphene can be oxidized to produce a material with a high degree of functionality and has led to its expansion as a platform for the immobilization of fluorescent and radiolabeled molecules. Its large surface area has allowed graphene and its oxides to be modified with a variety of molecules that enhance biocompatibility, selectivity, and therapeutic potential. This chapter highlights recent developments in the use of targeted fluorogenic or radiolabeled graphene materials that can be used to image cancers via fluorescence, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography modalities. Key emphasis is placed on the nanocomposites that are designed to provide additional therapeutic effects. The capacity of these composites to be internalized by cells and tumors is discussed to appreciate the future perspective of graphene and its congeners as therapeutic multimodal imaging agents.
- Cancer theranostic
- Graphene oxide