Krylov Methods for Low-Rank Regularization

Silvia Gazzola, Chang Meng, James G. Nagy

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This paper introduces new solvers for the computation of low-rank approximate solutions to large-scale linear problems, with a particular focus on the regularization of linear inverse problems. Although Krylov methods incorporating explicit projections onto low-rank subspaces are already used for well-posed systems that arise from discretizing stochastic or time-dependent PDEs, we are mainly concerned with algorithms that solve the so-called nuclear norm regularized problem, where a suitable nuclear norm penalization on the solution is imposed alongside a fit-to-data term expressed in the 2-norm: this has the effect of implicitly enforcing low-rank solutions. By adopting an iteratively reweighted norm approach, the nuclear norm regularized problem is reformulated as a sequence of quadratic problems, which can then be efficiently solved using Krylov methods, giving rise to an inner-outer iteration scheme. Our approach differs from the other solvers available in the literature in that (a) Kronecker product properties are exploited to define the reweighted 2-norm penalization terms; (b) efficient preconditioned Krylov methods replace gradient (projection) methods; (c) the regularization parameter can be efficiently and adaptively set along the iterations. Furthermore, we reformulate within the framework of flexible Krylov methods both the new inner-outer methods for nuclear norm regularization and some of the existing Krylov methods incorporating low-rank projections. This results in an even more computationally efficient (but heuristic) strategy that does not rely on an inner-outer iteration scheme. Numerical experiments including image deblurring, computed tomography, and inpainting show that our new solvers are competitive with other state-of-the-art solvers for low-rank problems and deliver reconstructions of increased quality with respect to other classical Krylov methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1477-1504
Number of pages28
JournalSIAM Journal On Matrix Analysis and Applications (SIMAX)
Issue number4
Early online date1 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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