Kiloparsec Scale Properties of Star-Formation Driven Outflows at z~2.3 in the SINS/zC-SINF AO Survey

Rebecca L. Davies, Natascha M. Förster Schreiber, Hannah Übler, Reinhard Genzel, Dieter Lutz, Alvio Renzini, Sandro Tacchella, Linda J. Tacconi, Sirio Belli, Andreas Burkert, C. Marcella Carollo, Richard I. Davies, Rodrigo Herrera-Camus, Simon J. Lilly, Chiara Mancini, Thorsten Naab, Erica J. Nelson, Sedona H. Price, Thomas Taro Shimizu, Amiel Sternberg & 2 others Emily Wisnioski, Stijn Wuyts

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Abstract

We investigate the relationship between star formation activity and outflow properties on kiloparsec scales in a sample of 28 star forming galaxies at $z\sim$ 2-2.6, using adaptive optics assisted integral field observations from SINFONI on the VLT. The narrow and broad components of the H$\alpha$ emission are used to simultaneously determine the local star formation rate surface density ($\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$), and the outflow velocity $v_{\rm out}$ and mass outflow rate $\dot{M}_{\rm out}$, respectively. We find clear evidence for faster outflows with larger mass loading factors at higher $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$. The outflow velocities scale as $v_{\rm out}$ $\propto$ $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}^{0.34 \pm 0.10}$, which suggests that the outflows may be driven by a combination of mechanical energy released by supernova explosions and stellar winds, as well as radiation pressure acting on dust grains. The majority of the outflowing material does not have sufficient velocity to escape from the galaxy halos, but will likely be re-accreted and contribute to the chemical enrichment of the galaxies. In the highest $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ regions the outflow component contains an average of $\sim$45% of the H$\alpha$ flux, while in the lower $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ regions only $\sim$10% of the H$\alpha$ flux is associated with outflows. The mass loading factor, $\eta$ = $\dot{M}_{\rm out}$/SFR, is positively correlated with $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ but is relatively low even at the highest $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$: $\eta \lesssim$ 0.5 $\times$ (380 cm$^{-3}$/n$_e$). This may be in tension with the $\eta$ $\gtrsim$ 1 required by cosmological simulations, unless a significant fraction of the outflowing mass is in other gas phases and has sufficient velocity to escape the galaxy halos.
Original languageEnglish
Article number122
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume873
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2019

Keywords

  • astro-ph.GA
  • infrared: galaxies
  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: high redshift

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Kiloparsec Scale Properties of Star-Formation Driven Outflows at z~2.3 in the SINS/zC-SINF AO Survey. / Davies, Rebecca L.; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Übler, Hannah; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Renzini, Alvio; Tacchella, Sandro; Tacconi, Linda J.; Belli, Sirio; Burkert, Andreas; Carollo, C. Marcella; Davies, Richard I.; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Lilly, Simon J.; Mancini, Chiara; Naab, Thorsten; Nelson, Erica J.; Price, Sedona H.; Shimizu, Thomas Taro; Sternberg, Amiel; Wisnioski, Emily; Wuyts, Stijn.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 873, No. 2, 122, 12.03.2019, p. 1-22.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Davies, RL, Schreiber, NMF, Übler, H, Genzel, R, Lutz, D, Renzini, A, Tacchella, S, Tacconi, LJ, Belli, S, Burkert, A, Carollo, CM, Davies, RI, Herrera-Camus, R, Lilly, SJ, Mancini, C, Naab, T, Nelson, EJ, Price, SH, Shimizu, TT, Sternberg, A, Wisnioski, E & Wuyts, S 2019, 'Kiloparsec Scale Properties of Star-Formation Driven Outflows at z~2.3 in the SINS/zC-SINF AO Survey', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 873, no. 2, 122, pp. 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab06f1
Davies, Rebecca L. ; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster ; Übler, Hannah ; Genzel, Reinhard ; Lutz, Dieter ; Renzini, Alvio ; Tacchella, Sandro ; Tacconi, Linda J. ; Belli, Sirio ; Burkert, Andreas ; Carollo, C. Marcella ; Davies, Richard I. ; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo ; Lilly, Simon J. ; Mancini, Chiara ; Naab, Thorsten ; Nelson, Erica J. ; Price, Sedona H. ; Shimizu, Thomas Taro ; Sternberg, Amiel ; Wisnioski, Emily ; Wuyts, Stijn. / Kiloparsec Scale Properties of Star-Formation Driven Outflows at z~2.3 in the SINS/zC-SINF AO Survey. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 873, No. 2. pp. 1-22.
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abstract = "We investigate the relationship between star formation activity and outflow properties on kiloparsec scales in a sample of 28 star forming galaxies at $z\sim$ 2-2.6, using adaptive optics assisted integral field observations from SINFONI on the VLT. The narrow and broad components of the H$\alpha$ emission are used to simultaneously determine the local star formation rate surface density ($\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$), and the outflow velocity $v_{\rm out}$ and mass outflow rate $\dot{M}_{\rm out}$, respectively. We find clear evidence for faster outflows with larger mass loading factors at higher $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$. The outflow velocities scale as $v_{\rm out}$ $\propto$ $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}^{0.34 \pm 0.10}$, which suggests that the outflows may be driven by a combination of mechanical energy released by supernova explosions and stellar winds, as well as radiation pressure acting on dust grains. The majority of the outflowing material does not have sufficient velocity to escape from the galaxy halos, but will likely be re-accreted and contribute to the chemical enrichment of the galaxies. In the highest $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ regions the outflow component contains an average of $\sim$45{\%} of the H$\alpha$ flux, while in the lower $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ regions only $\sim$10{\%} of the H$\alpha$ flux is associated with outflows. The mass loading factor, $\eta$ = $\dot{M}_{\rm out}$/SFR, is positively correlated with $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ but is relatively low even at the highest $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$: $\eta \lesssim$ 0.5 $\times$ (380 cm$^{-3}$/n$_e$). This may be in tension with the $\eta$ $\gtrsim$ 1 required by cosmological simulations, unless a significant fraction of the outflowing mass is in other gas phases and has sufficient velocity to escape the galaxy halos.",
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T1 - Kiloparsec Scale Properties of Star-Formation Driven Outflows at z~2.3 in the SINS/zC-SINF AO Survey

AU - Davies, Rebecca L.

AU - Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster

AU - Übler, Hannah

AU - Genzel, Reinhard

AU - Lutz, Dieter

AU - Renzini, Alvio

AU - Tacchella, Sandro

AU - Tacconi, Linda J.

AU - Belli, Sirio

AU - Burkert, Andreas

AU - Carollo, C. Marcella

AU - Davies, Richard I.

AU - Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo

AU - Lilly, Simon J.

AU - Mancini, Chiara

AU - Naab, Thorsten

AU - Nelson, Erica J.

AU - Price, Sedona H.

AU - Shimizu, Thomas Taro

AU - Sternberg, Amiel

AU - Wisnioski, Emily

AU - Wuyts, Stijn

N1 - 28 pages, 12 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for publication in ApJ

PY - 2019/3/12

Y1 - 2019/3/12

N2 - We investigate the relationship between star formation activity and outflow properties on kiloparsec scales in a sample of 28 star forming galaxies at $z\sim$ 2-2.6, using adaptive optics assisted integral field observations from SINFONI on the VLT. The narrow and broad components of the H$\alpha$ emission are used to simultaneously determine the local star formation rate surface density ($\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$), and the outflow velocity $v_{\rm out}$ and mass outflow rate $\dot{M}_{\rm out}$, respectively. We find clear evidence for faster outflows with larger mass loading factors at higher $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$. The outflow velocities scale as $v_{\rm out}$ $\propto$ $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}^{0.34 \pm 0.10}$, which suggests that the outflows may be driven by a combination of mechanical energy released by supernova explosions and stellar winds, as well as radiation pressure acting on dust grains. The majority of the outflowing material does not have sufficient velocity to escape from the galaxy halos, but will likely be re-accreted and contribute to the chemical enrichment of the galaxies. In the highest $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ regions the outflow component contains an average of $\sim$45% of the H$\alpha$ flux, while in the lower $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ regions only $\sim$10% of the H$\alpha$ flux is associated with outflows. The mass loading factor, $\eta$ = $\dot{M}_{\rm out}$/SFR, is positively correlated with $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ but is relatively low even at the highest $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$: $\eta \lesssim$ 0.5 $\times$ (380 cm$^{-3}$/n$_e$). This may be in tension with the $\eta$ $\gtrsim$ 1 required by cosmological simulations, unless a significant fraction of the outflowing mass is in other gas phases and has sufficient velocity to escape the galaxy halos.

AB - We investigate the relationship between star formation activity and outflow properties on kiloparsec scales in a sample of 28 star forming galaxies at $z\sim$ 2-2.6, using adaptive optics assisted integral field observations from SINFONI on the VLT. The narrow and broad components of the H$\alpha$ emission are used to simultaneously determine the local star formation rate surface density ($\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$), and the outflow velocity $v_{\rm out}$ and mass outflow rate $\dot{M}_{\rm out}$, respectively. We find clear evidence for faster outflows with larger mass loading factors at higher $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$. The outflow velocities scale as $v_{\rm out}$ $\propto$ $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}^{0.34 \pm 0.10}$, which suggests that the outflows may be driven by a combination of mechanical energy released by supernova explosions and stellar winds, as well as radiation pressure acting on dust grains. The majority of the outflowing material does not have sufficient velocity to escape from the galaxy halos, but will likely be re-accreted and contribute to the chemical enrichment of the galaxies. In the highest $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ regions the outflow component contains an average of $\sim$45% of the H$\alpha$ flux, while in the lower $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ regions only $\sim$10% of the H$\alpha$ flux is associated with outflows. The mass loading factor, $\eta$ = $\dot{M}_{\rm out}$/SFR, is positively correlated with $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ but is relatively low even at the highest $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$: $\eta \lesssim$ 0.5 $\times$ (380 cm$^{-3}$/n$_e$). This may be in tension with the $\eta$ $\gtrsim$ 1 required by cosmological simulations, unless a significant fraction of the outflowing mass is in other gas phases and has sufficient velocity to escape the galaxy halos.

KW - astro-ph.GA

KW - infrared: galaxies

KW - galaxies: evolution

KW - galaxies: high redshift

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85064445104&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/ab06f1

DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/ab06f1

M3 - Article

VL - 873

SP - 1

EP - 22

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

M1 - 122

ER -