Joint analysis of gravitational-wave and electromagnetic data of mergers: breaking an afterglow model degeneracy in GW170817 and in future events

Giulia Gianfagna, Luigi Piro, Francesco Pannarale, Hendrik Van Eerten, Fulvio Ricci, Geoffrey Ryan, Eleonora Troja

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Abstract

On 2017 August 17, Advanced LIGO and Virgo observed GW170817, the first gravitational-wave (GW) signal from a binary neutron star merger. It was followed by a short-duration gamma-ray burst, GRB 170817A, and by a non-thermal afterglow emission. In this work, a combined simultaneous fit of the electromagnetic (EM, specifically, afterglow) and GW domains is implemented, both using the posterior distribution of a GW standalone analysis as prior distribution to separately process the EM data, and fitting the EM and GW domains simultaneously. These approaches coincide mathematically, as long as the actual posterior of the GW analysis, and not an approximation, is used as prior for the EM analysis. We treat the viewing angle, θv, as shared parameter across the two domains. In the afterglow modelling with a Gaussian structured jet this parameter and the jet core angle, θc, are correlated, leading to high uncertainties on their values. The joint EM + GW analysis relaxes this degeneracy, reducing the uncertainty compared to an EM-only fit. We also apply our methodology to hypothetical GW170817-like events occurring in the next GW observing run at ∼140 and 70 Mpc. At 70 Mpc the existing EM degeneracy is broken, thanks to the inclusion of the GW domain in the analysis. At 140 Mpc, the EM-only fit cannot constrain θv nor θc because of the lack of detections in the afterglow rising phase. Folding the GW data into the analysis leads to tighter constraints on θv, still leaving θc unconstrained, requiring instruments with higher sensitivities, such as Athena.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4771-4784
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume523
Issue number3
Early online date8 Jun 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Giancarlo Ghirlanda for stimulating discussion. We acknowledge support by the European Union horizon 2020 programme under the AHEAD2020 project (grant agreement number 871158). This work has been also supported by ASI (Italian Space Agency) through the Contract no. 2019-27-HH.0. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported in part by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Colleges and Universities. This research has made use of data or software obtained from the Gravitational Wave Open Science Center ( gw-openscience.org ), a service of LIGO Laboratory, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, the Virgo Collaboration, and KAGRA. LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO are funded by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. Virgo is funded, through the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), by the French Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) and the Dutch Nikhef, with contributions by institutions from Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, and Spain. The construction and operation of KAGRA are funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), National Research Foundation (NRF) and Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) in Korea, Academia Sinica (AS) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in Taiwan.

Keywords

  • gamma-ray bursts
  • gravitational waves
  • neutron star mergers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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