Is the transposition of EU directives homogeneous? An AI counterfactual example

María Teresa Ballestar, Jorge Sainz, Ismael Sanz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This research investigates homogeneity in the transposition of European Directives using as an example the EU policy on tobaccos regulated by Directive 2011/64. We analyse the effect of excise duties on tobacco consumption in Europe from 2002 to 2017 using an Artificial Intelligence counterfactual strategy. To our knowledge, this the first time that this AI strategie has been used in the economic analysis of law. Our results show that countries have different responses to changes in prices or taxation on tobacco. The lack of homogeneity across countries creates distortions and frontier effects and shows the need of harmonization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2015-2019
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Economics Letters
Issue number21
Early online date19 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial intelligence
  • counterfactual
  • EU regulation
  • law and economics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics


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