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Ion transfer at liquid vertical bar liquid junctions is one of the most fundamental processes in nature. It occurs coupled to simultaneous electron transfer at the line junction (or triple phase boundary) formed by the two liquids in contact to an electrode surface. The triple phase boundary can be assembled from a redox active microdroplet deposit of a water-immiscible liquid on a suitable electrode surface immersed into aqueous electrolyte. Ion transfer voltammetry measurements at this type of electrode allow both thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for coupled ion and electron transfer processes to be obtained. This overview summarises some recent advances in understanding and application of triple phase boundary redox processes at organic liquid vertical bar aqueous electrolyte vertical bar working electrode junctions. The design of novel types of electrodes is considered based on (i) extended triple phase boundaries, (ii) porous membrane processes, (iii) hydrodynamic effects, and (iv) generator-collector triple phase boundary systems. Novel facilitated ion transfer processes and photo-electrochemical processes at triple phase boundary electrodes are proposed. Potential future applications of triple phase boundary redox systems in electrosynthesis, sensing, and light energy harvesting are indicated.
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