Invited Review Article: Strategies and Processes for High Quality Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing

Chloe Cunningham, Joseph Flynn, Alborz Shokrani, Vimal Dhokia, Stephen Newman

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Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is attracting significant attention in industry and academia due to its ability to capture the benefits of additive manufacturing for production of large components of medium geometric complexity. Uniquely, WAAM combines the use of wire and electric arc as a fusion source to build components in a layer-by-layer approach, both of which can offer significant cost savings compared to powder and alternative fusion sources, such as laser and electron beam, respectively. Meanwhile, a high deposition rate, key for producing such components, is provided, whilst also allowing significant material savings compared to conventional manufacturing processes. However, high quality production in a wide range of materials is limited by the elevated levels of heat input which causes a number of materials processing challenges in WAAM. The materials processing challenges are fully identified in this paper to include the development of high residual stresses, undesirable microstructures, and solute segregation and phase transformations at solidification. The thermal profile during the build poses another challenge leading to heterogeneous and anisotropic material properties. This paper outlines how the materials processing challenges may be addressed in WAAM by implementation of quality improving ancillary processes. The primary WAAM process selections and ancillary processes are classified by the authors and a comprehensive review of their application conducted. Strategies by which the ancillary processes can enhance the quality of WAAM parts are presented. The efficacy and suitability of these strategies for versatile and cost effective WAAM production are discussed and a future vision of WAAM process developments provided.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)672-686
Number of pages15
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Early online date30 Jun 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Processes
  • Wire arc additive manufacturing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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