In this paper we report investigations of high temperature proton conduction in the tetragonal tungsten bronze niobates, A(0.6)Ti(0.2)M(0.8)O(3) and A(0.6)M(g0.067)Nb(0.933)O(3) (A= Sr, Ba). For all samples, conductivities in dry N-2 were higher than those in dry O-2 indicating that these materials show n-type electronic conduction. In wet atmospheres, the conductivities for the Ba containing systems and Sr0.6Ti0.2NTb0.8O3 were higher than those in dry atmospheres, indicating the presence of proton conduction. The conductivities were, however, low (sigma(600) (degrees C) approximate to 2 x 10(-6) and 6 x 10(-6) S cm(-1) in wet O-2 and N-2, respectively). In the case of Sr0.6Mg0.067Nb0.933O3 the conductivities were similar for both wet and dry atmospheres, with the exception of a small increase in conductivity at lower temperatures (below 650 degrees C in wet O-2 suggesting a lower proton conductivity for this system. The low proton conductivity in these samples is attributed to a low oxygen vacancy concentration. Attempts to vary the Ti/Nb or Mg/Nb ratio to raise this oxide ion vacancy concentration, and so improve the proton conduction, were unsuccessful. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.