Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever. It possesses a Vi antigen capsular polysaccharide coat that is important for virulence and is the basis of a current glycoconjugate vaccine. Vi antigen is also produced by environmental Bordetella isolates, while mammal-adapted Bordetella species (like B. bronchiseptica) produce a capsule of undetermined structure that cross-reacts with antibodies recognizing Vi antigen. The Vi antigen backbone is composed of poly-α-(1→4)-linked N-acetylgalactosaminuronic acid, modified with O-acetyl residues that are necessary for vaccine efficacy. Despite its biological and biotechnological importance, some central aspects of Vi antigen production are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that TviE and TviD, two proteins encoded in the viaB (Vi antigen production) locus, interact and are the Vi antigen polymerase and O-acetyltransferase, respectively. Structural modeling and site-directed mutangenesis reveal TviE is a GT4-family glycosyltransferase. While TviD has no identifiable homologs beyond Vi antigen systems in other bacteria, structural modeling suggests it belongs to the large SGNH hydrolase family, which contains other O-acetyltransferases. Although TviD possesses an atypical catalytic triad, its O-acetyltransferase function was verified by antibody reactivity and 13C NMR data for tviD-mutant polysaccharide. The B. bronchiseptica genetic locus predicts a mode of synthesis distinct from classical S. enterica Vi antigen production, but which still involves TviD and TviE homologs that are both active in a reconstituted S. Typhi system. These findings provide new insight into Vi antigen production and foundational information for the glycoengineering of Vi antigen production in heterologous bacteria.