Introducing hydrophilic carbon nanoparticles into hydrophilic sol-gel film electrodes

S M Macdonald, K Szot, J Niedziolka, F Marken, M Opallo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A hydrophilic carbon nanoparticle-sol-gel electrode with good electrical conductivity within the sol-gel matrix is prepared. Sulfonated carbon nanoparticles with high hydrophilicity and of 10-20 nm diameter (Emperor 2000) are co-deposited onto tin-doped indium oxide substrates employing a sol-gel technique. The resulting carbon nanoparticle-sol-gel composite electrodes are characterized as a function of composition and salt (KCl) additive. Scanning electron microscopy and voltammetry in the absence and in the presence of a solution redox system suggest that the composite electrode films can be made electrically conducting and highly porous to promote electron transport and transfer. The effect of the presence of hydrophilic carbon nanoparticles is explored for the following processes: (1) double layer charging, (2) diffusion and adsorption of the electrochemically reversible solution redox system 1,1'-ferrocenedimethanol, (3) electron transfer to the electrochemically irreversible redox system hydrogen peroxide, and (4) electron transfer to the redox liquid tert-butylferrocene deposited into the porous composite electrode film. The extended electrochemically active hydrophilic surface area is beneficial in particular for surface sensitive processes (1) and (3), and it provides an extended solid/organic liquid|aqueous solution boundary for reaction (4). The carbon nanoparticle-sol-gel composite electrodes are optimized to provide good electrical conductivity and to remain stable during electrochemical investigation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287-293
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Solid State Electrochemistry
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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