Internationally-national schools: A critical review of this developing sector and the frameworks that define international schools

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Across the world, the international school sector is changing at a rapid pace, having an impact on all facets of international schools, from curriculum to clientele. This article describes an emerging concept from this sector that I have termed the internationally-national school, borne from the nationally affiliated schools that currently exist within the sector that have adapted and evolved. It seeks to contribute to the discourse on international schools and the typologies used to categorise them. In order to embed this concept as a subsection of international schools, this article critically analyses three established frameworks currently in use to classify international schools and positions the internationally-national school within each framework. From this analysis, I conclude that internationally-national schools should be a recognised part of the international school landscape and that there is a need for an update to some of these frameworks as they lack the flexibility required to keep pace with the everchanging sector.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-372
Number of pages22
JournalResearch in Comparative and International Education
Issue number3
Early online date21 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


  • international education
  • international school curriculum
  • international school frameworks
  • international schools
  • internationally-national

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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