Intensified training increases salivary free light chains in trained cyclists

Indication that training volume increases oral inflammation

Jennifer L.J. Heaney, Sophie C. Killer, Ida S. Svendsen, Michael Gleeson, John P. Campbell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Periods of short-term intensified training (IT) are often used by athletes during training cycles over the season and undergoing phases of increased physical stress may impact upon the immune system. This study investigated the effects of a period of IT on free light chains (FLCs) in saliva - an emerging immune biomarker of oral inflammation - and matched serum samples in well-trained athletes. It also examined if IT influences basal FLC levels and FLC flux during acute exercise. Highly trained male cyclists (n = 10) underwent a 9-day period of IT; before and after IT participants performed a 1 h time trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer, with blood and saliva samples collected pre- and post-exercise. FLCs were assessed in serum and saliva, and IgG, IgA, IgM and creatinine were also measured in serum. Weekly training volume increased by 143% (95% CI 114–172%), p < 0.001, during IT compared with pre-trial baseline training. Following IT, the cyclists demonstrated higher salivary FLC levels. Both salivary lambda FLC concentrations (p < 0.05, η2 = 0.384) and secretion rates, and kappa FLC concentrations and secretion rates increased after IT. Salivary FLCs concentration and secretion rates decreased in response to the TT following IT (p < 0.05, η2 = 0.387–0.428), but not in response to the TT prior to IT. No significant effects of IT on serum FLCs were observed. There were no significant changes in serum FLCs in response to the TT, before or after the IT period, nor did IT impact upon other serological responses to the TT. In conclusion, IT increased basal salivary FLC parameters and amplified decreases in salivary FLCs in response to acute exercise. Increases in salivary FLC concentration likely reflects alterations to oral inflammation during times of heavy training, and we show for the first time that FLCs may have utility as a marker of exercise stress and oral health status.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)181-187
Number of pages7
JournalPhysiology and Behavior
Volume188
Early online date7 Feb 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018

Fingerprint

Inflammation
Light
Saliva
Exercise
Serum
Athletes
Oral Health
Immunoglobulin A
Health Status
Immunoglobulin M
Immune System
Creatinine
Immunoglobulin G
Biomarkers

Keywords

  • Athletes
  • Exercise
  • Free light chains
  • Inflammation
  • Saliva
  • Training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

Intensified training increases salivary free light chains in trained cyclists : Indication that training volume increases oral inflammation. / Heaney, Jennifer L.J.; Killer, Sophie C.; Svendsen, Ida S.; Gleeson, Michael; Campbell, John P.

In: Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 188, 01.05.2018, p. 181-187.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{15bd11ce2463483092470e98beade112,
title = "Intensified training increases salivary free light chains in trained cyclists: Indication that training volume increases oral inflammation",
abstract = "Periods of short-term intensified training (IT) are often used by athletes during training cycles over the season and undergoing phases of increased physical stress may impact upon the immune system. This study investigated the effects of a period of IT on free light chains (FLCs) in saliva - an emerging immune biomarker of oral inflammation - and matched serum samples in well-trained athletes. It also examined if IT influences basal FLC levels and FLC flux during acute exercise. Highly trained male cyclists (n = 10) underwent a 9-day period of IT; before and after IT participants performed a 1 h time trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer, with blood and saliva samples collected pre- and post-exercise. FLCs were assessed in serum and saliva, and IgG, IgA, IgM and creatinine were also measured in serum. Weekly training volume increased by 143{\%} (95{\%} CI 114–172{\%}), p < 0.001, during IT compared with pre-trial baseline training. Following IT, the cyclists demonstrated higher salivary FLC levels. Both salivary lambda FLC concentrations (p < 0.05, η2 = 0.384) and secretion rates, and kappa FLC concentrations and secretion rates increased after IT. Salivary FLCs concentration and secretion rates decreased in response to the TT following IT (p < 0.05, η2 = 0.387–0.428), but not in response to the TT prior to IT. No significant effects of IT on serum FLCs were observed. There were no significant changes in serum FLCs in response to the TT, before or after the IT period, nor did IT impact upon other serological responses to the TT. In conclusion, IT increased basal salivary FLC parameters and amplified decreases in salivary FLCs in response to acute exercise. Increases in salivary FLC concentration likely reflects alterations to oral inflammation during times of heavy training, and we show for the first time that FLCs may have utility as a marker of exercise stress and oral health status.",
keywords = "Athletes, Exercise, Free light chains, Inflammation, Saliva, Training",
author = "Heaney, {Jennifer L.J.} and Killer, {Sophie C.} and Svendsen, {Ida S.} and Michael Gleeson and Campbell, {John P.}",
year = "2018",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.02.013",
language = "English",
volume = "188",
pages = "181--187",
journal = "Physiology and Behavior",
issn = "0031-9384",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Intensified training increases salivary free light chains in trained cyclists

T2 - Indication that training volume increases oral inflammation

AU - Heaney, Jennifer L.J.

AU - Killer, Sophie C.

AU - Svendsen, Ida S.

AU - Gleeson, Michael

AU - Campbell, John P.

PY - 2018/5/1

Y1 - 2018/5/1

N2 - Periods of short-term intensified training (IT) are often used by athletes during training cycles over the season and undergoing phases of increased physical stress may impact upon the immune system. This study investigated the effects of a period of IT on free light chains (FLCs) in saliva - an emerging immune biomarker of oral inflammation - and matched serum samples in well-trained athletes. It also examined if IT influences basal FLC levels and FLC flux during acute exercise. Highly trained male cyclists (n = 10) underwent a 9-day period of IT; before and after IT participants performed a 1 h time trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer, with blood and saliva samples collected pre- and post-exercise. FLCs were assessed in serum and saliva, and IgG, IgA, IgM and creatinine were also measured in serum. Weekly training volume increased by 143% (95% CI 114–172%), p < 0.001, during IT compared with pre-trial baseline training. Following IT, the cyclists demonstrated higher salivary FLC levels. Both salivary lambda FLC concentrations (p < 0.05, η2 = 0.384) and secretion rates, and kappa FLC concentrations and secretion rates increased after IT. Salivary FLCs concentration and secretion rates decreased in response to the TT following IT (p < 0.05, η2 = 0.387–0.428), but not in response to the TT prior to IT. No significant effects of IT on serum FLCs were observed. There were no significant changes in serum FLCs in response to the TT, before or after the IT period, nor did IT impact upon other serological responses to the TT. In conclusion, IT increased basal salivary FLC parameters and amplified decreases in salivary FLCs in response to acute exercise. Increases in salivary FLC concentration likely reflects alterations to oral inflammation during times of heavy training, and we show for the first time that FLCs may have utility as a marker of exercise stress and oral health status.

AB - Periods of short-term intensified training (IT) are often used by athletes during training cycles over the season and undergoing phases of increased physical stress may impact upon the immune system. This study investigated the effects of a period of IT on free light chains (FLCs) in saliva - an emerging immune biomarker of oral inflammation - and matched serum samples in well-trained athletes. It also examined if IT influences basal FLC levels and FLC flux during acute exercise. Highly trained male cyclists (n = 10) underwent a 9-day period of IT; before and after IT participants performed a 1 h time trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer, with blood and saliva samples collected pre- and post-exercise. FLCs were assessed in serum and saliva, and IgG, IgA, IgM and creatinine were also measured in serum. Weekly training volume increased by 143% (95% CI 114–172%), p < 0.001, during IT compared with pre-trial baseline training. Following IT, the cyclists demonstrated higher salivary FLC levels. Both salivary lambda FLC concentrations (p < 0.05, η2 = 0.384) and secretion rates, and kappa FLC concentrations and secretion rates increased after IT. Salivary FLCs concentration and secretion rates decreased in response to the TT following IT (p < 0.05, η2 = 0.387–0.428), but not in response to the TT prior to IT. No significant effects of IT on serum FLCs were observed. There were no significant changes in serum FLCs in response to the TT, before or after the IT period, nor did IT impact upon other serological responses to the TT. In conclusion, IT increased basal salivary FLC parameters and amplified decreases in salivary FLCs in response to acute exercise. Increases in salivary FLC concentration likely reflects alterations to oral inflammation during times of heavy training, and we show for the first time that FLCs may have utility as a marker of exercise stress and oral health status.

KW - Athletes

KW - Exercise

KW - Free light chains

KW - Inflammation

KW - Saliva

KW - Training

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85042202272&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.02.013

DO - 10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.02.013

M3 - Article

VL - 188

SP - 181

EP - 187

JO - Physiology and Behavior

JF - Physiology and Behavior

SN - 0031-9384

ER -