The use of strength and conditioning (S&C) in musculoskeletal rehabilitation has gained wide acceptance among the rehabilitation community. However, there is an absence of evidence demonstrating how to best integrate the principles of S&C into rehabilitation practice. This article discusses four broad themes: (1) an overview of the UK Defence Rehabilitation care pathway, (2) the historical and current approaches to physical training to support operational readiness of the British Armed Forces, (3) the current and future challenges of integrating S&C into Defence Rehabilitation practice and (4) research priorities relating to the use of S&C in Defence Rehabilitation. We detail the importance of strength/power-based physical attributes within our military population. We recommend that consideration be given to the benefits of an alternative education/coaching-based model to be used during the current 3-week residential care pathway, which aims to ensure effective implementation of therapeutic S&C over a longer period of care.
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