Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012

J. Aleksić, S. Ansoldi, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, C. Arcaro, A. Babic, P. Bangale, U. Barres de Almeida, J. A. Barrio, J. Becerra González, W. Bednarek, E. Bernardini, B. Biasuzzi, A. Biland, O. Blanch, S. Bonnefoy, G. Bonnoli, F. Borracci, T. Bretz, E. Carmona & 144 others A. Carosi, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, G. De Caneva, B. De Lotto, E. de O. na Wilhelmi, C. Delgado Mendez, F. Di Pierro, D. Dominis Prester, D. Dorner, M. Doro, S. Einecke, D. Eisenacher, D. Elsaesser, A. Fernández-Barral, D. Fidalgo, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, K. Frantzen, C. Fruck, D. Galindo, R. J. García López, M. Garczarczyk, D. Garrido Terrats, M. Gaug, N. Godinović, A. González Mu noz, S. R. Gozzini, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, M. Hayashida, J. Herrera, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, W. Idec, V. Kadenius, H. Kellermann, M. L. Knoetig, K. Kodani, Y. Konno, J. Krause, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, A. La Barbera, D. Lelas, N. Lewandowska, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, F. Longo, M. López, R. López-Coto, A. López-Oramas, E. Lorenz, I. Lozano, M. Makariev, K. Mallot, G. Maneva, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, B. Marcote, M. Mariotti, M. Martínez, D. Mazin, U. Menzel, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, P. Munar-Adrover, D. Nakajima, V. Neustroev, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Nievas Rosillo, K. Nilsson, K. Nishijima, K. Noda, R. Orito, A. Overkemping, S. Paiano, M. Palatiello, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, X. Paredes-Fortuny, M. Persic, J. Poutanen, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, I. Puljak, R. Reinthal, W. Rhode, M. Ribó, J. Rico, J. Rodriguez Garcia, T. Saito, K. Saito, K. Satalecka, V. Scalzotto, V. Scapin, T. Schweizer, S. N. Shore, A. Sillanpää, J. Sitarek, I. Snidaric, D. Sobczynska, A. Stamerra, T. Steinbring, M. Strzys, L. Takalo, H. Takami, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzić, D. Tescaro, M. Teshima, J. Thaele, D. F. Torres, T. Toyama, A. Treves, P. Vogler, M. Will, R. Zanin, S. Buson, F. D'Ammando, A. Lähteenmäki, T. Hovatta, Y. Y. Kovalev, M. L. Lister, W. Max-Moerbeck, C. Mundell, A. B. Pushkarev, E. Rastorgueva-Foi, A. C. S. Readhead, J. L. Richards, J. Tammi, D. A. Sanchez, M. Tornikoski, T. Savolainen, I. Steele

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Abstract

1ES 1011+496 $(z=0.212)$ was discovered in very high energy (VHE, E >100 GeV) $\gamma$-rays with MAGIC in 2007. The absence of simultaneous data at lower energies led to a rather incomplete characterization of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). We study the source properties and the emission mechanisms, probing whether a simple one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) scenario is able to explain the observed broadband spectrum. We analyzed VHE to radio data from 2011 and 2012 collected by MAGIC, $Fermi$-LAT, $Swift$, KVA, OVRO, and Mets\"ahovi in addition to optical polarimetry data and radio maps from the Liverpool Telescope and MOJAVE. The VHE spectrum was fit with a simple power law with a photon index of $3.69\pm0.22$ and a flux above 150 GeV of $(1.46\pm0.16)\times10^{-11}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. 1ES 1011+496 was found to be in a generally quiescent state at all observed wavelengths, showing only moderate variability from radio to X-rays. A low degree of polarization of less than 10% was measured in optical, while some bright features polarized up to 60% were observed in the radio jet. A similar trend in the rotation of the electric vector position angle was found in optical and radio. The radio maps indicated a superluminal motion of $1.8\pm0.4\,c$, which is the highest speed statistically significantly measured so far in a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac. For the first time, the high-energy bump in the broadband SED of 1ES 1011+496 could be fully characterized from 0.1 GeV to 1 TeV which permitted a more reliable interpretation within the one-zone SSC scenario. The polarimetry data suggest that at least part of the optical emission has its origin in some of the bright radio features, while the low polarization in optical might be due to the contribution of parts of the radio jet with different orientations of the magnetic field to the optical emission.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberA10
Number of pages14
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Volume591
Early online date2 Jun 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016

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polarimetry
radio
spectral energy distribution
broadband
light emission
synchrotrons
polarization
energy
high speed
gamma rays
telescopes
trends
photons
magnetic fields
wavelengths
x rays
power law
magnetic field
wavelength

Keywords

  • astro-ph.HE

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Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012. / Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Almeida, U. Barres de; Barrio, J. A.; González, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Vela, P. Da; Dazzi, F.; Angelis, A. De; Caneva, G. De; Lotto, B. De; Wilhelmi, E. de O. na; Mendez, C. Delgado; Pierro, F. Di; Prester, D. Dominis; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; López, R. J. García; Garczarczyk, M.; Terrats, D. Garrido; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; noz, A. González Mu; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Knoetig, M. L.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Barbera, A. La; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Rosillo, M. Nievas; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Garcia, J. Rodriguez; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vogler, P.; Will, M.; Zanin, R.; Buson, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Hovatta, T.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lister, M. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mundell, C.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Tammi, J.; Sanchez, D. A.; Tornikoski, M.; Savolainen, T.; Steele, I.

In: Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 591, A10, 07.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aleksić, J, Ansoldi, S, Antonelli, LA, Antoranz, P, Arcaro, C, Babic, A, Bangale, P, Almeida, UBD, Barrio, JA, González, JB, Bednarek, W, Bernardini, E, Biasuzzi, B, Biland, A, Blanch, O, Bonnefoy, S, Bonnoli, G, Borracci, F, Bretz, T, Carmona, E, Carosi, A, Colin, P, Colombo, E, Contreras, JL, Cortina, J, Covino, S, Vela, PD, Dazzi, F, Angelis, AD, Caneva, GD, Lotto, BD, Wilhelmi, EDON, Mendez, CD, Pierro, FD, Prester, DD, Dorner, D, Doro, M, Einecke, S, Eisenacher, D, Elsaesser, D, Fernández-Barral, A, Fidalgo, D, Fonseca, MV, Font, L, Frantzen, K, Fruck, C, Galindo, D, López, RJG, Garczarczyk, M, Terrats, DG, Gaug, M, Godinović, N, noz, AGM, Gozzini, SR, Hadasch, D, Hanabata, Y, Hayashida, M, Herrera, J, Hose, J, Hrupec, D, Idec, W, Kadenius, V, Kellermann, H, Knoetig, ML, Kodani, K, Konno, Y, Krause, J, Kubo, H, Kushida, J, Barbera, AL, Lelas, D, Lewandowska, N, Lindfors, E, Lombardi, S, Longo, F, López, M, López-Coto, R, López-Oramas, A, Lorenz, E, Lozano, I, Makariev, M, Mallot, K, Maneva, G, Mannheim, K, Maraschi, L, Marcote, B, Mariotti, M, Martínez, M, Mazin, D, Menzel, U, Miranda, JM, Mirzoyan, R, Moralejo, A, Munar-Adrover, P, Nakajima, D, Neustroev, V, Niedzwiecki, A, Rosillo, MN, Nilsson, K, Nishijima, K, Noda, K, Orito, R, Overkemping, A, Paiano, S, Palatiello, M, Paneque, D, Paoletti, R, Paredes, JM, Paredes-Fortuny, X, Persic, M, Poutanen, J, Moroni, PGP, Prandini, E, Puljak, I, Reinthal, R, Rhode, W, Ribó, M, Rico, J, Garcia, JR, Saito, T, Saito, K, Satalecka, K, Scalzotto, V, Scapin, V, Schweizer, T, Shore, SN, Sillanpää, A, Sitarek, J, Snidaric, I, Sobczynska, D, Stamerra, A, Steinbring, T, Strzys, M, Takalo, L, Takami, H, Tavecchio, F, Temnikov, P, Terzić, T, Tescaro, D, Teshima, M, Thaele, J, Torres, DF, Toyama, T, Treves, A, Vogler, P, Will, M, Zanin, R, Buson, S, D'Ammando, F, Lähteenmäki, A, Hovatta, T, Kovalev, YY, Lister, ML, Max-Moerbeck, W, Mundell, C, Pushkarev, AB, Rastorgueva-Foi, E, Readhead, ACS, Richards, JL, Tammi, J, Sanchez, DA, Tornikoski, M, Savolainen, T & Steele, I 2016, 'Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012', Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 591, A10. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527176
Aleksić, J. ; Ansoldi, S. ; Antonelli, L. A. ; Antoranz, P. ; Arcaro, C. ; Babic, A. ; Bangale, P. ; Almeida, U. Barres de ; Barrio, J. A. ; González, J. Becerra ; Bednarek, W. ; Bernardini, E. ; Biasuzzi, B. ; Biland, A. ; Blanch, O. ; Bonnefoy, S. ; Bonnoli, G. ; Borracci, F. ; Bretz, T. ; Carmona, E. ; Carosi, A. ; Colin, P. ; Colombo, E. ; Contreras, J. L. ; Cortina, J. ; Covino, S. ; Vela, P. Da ; Dazzi, F. ; Angelis, A. De ; Caneva, G. De ; Lotto, B. De ; Wilhelmi, E. de O. na ; Mendez, C. Delgado ; Pierro, F. Di ; Prester, D. Dominis ; Dorner, D. ; Doro, M. ; Einecke, S. ; Eisenacher, D. ; Elsaesser, D. ; Fernández-Barral, A. ; Fidalgo, D. ; Fonseca, M. V. ; Font, L. ; Frantzen, K. ; Fruck, C. ; Galindo, D. ; López, R. J. García ; Garczarczyk, M. ; Terrats, D. Garrido ; Gaug, M. ; Godinović, N. ; noz, A. González Mu ; Gozzini, S. R. ; Hadasch, D. ; Hanabata, Y. ; Hayashida, M. ; Herrera, J. ; Hose, J. ; Hrupec, D. ; Idec, W. ; Kadenius, V. ; Kellermann, H. ; Knoetig, M. L. ; Kodani, K. ; Konno, Y. ; Krause, J. ; Kubo, H. ; Kushida, J. ; Barbera, A. La ; Lelas, D. ; Lewandowska, N. ; Lindfors, E. ; Lombardi, S. ; Longo, F. ; López, M. ; López-Coto, R. ; López-Oramas, A. ; Lorenz, E. ; Lozano, I. ; Makariev, M. ; Mallot, K. ; Maneva, G. ; Mannheim, K. ; Maraschi, L. ; Marcote, B. ; Mariotti, M. ; Martínez, M. ; Mazin, D. ; Menzel, U. ; Miranda, J. M. ; Mirzoyan, R. ; Moralejo, A. ; Munar-Adrover, P. ; Nakajima, D. ; Neustroev, V. ; Niedzwiecki, A. ; Rosillo, M. Nievas ; Nilsson, K. ; Nishijima, K. ; Noda, K. ; Orito, R. ; Overkemping, A. ; Paiano, S. ; Palatiello, M. ; Paneque, D. ; Paoletti, R. ; Paredes, J. M. ; Paredes-Fortuny, X. ; Persic, M. ; Poutanen, J. ; Moroni, P. G. Prada ; Prandini, E. ; Puljak, I. ; Reinthal, R. ; Rhode, W. ; Ribó, M. ; Rico, J. ; Garcia, J. Rodriguez ; Saito, T. ; Saito, K. ; Satalecka, K. ; Scalzotto, V. ; Scapin, V. ; Schweizer, T. ; Shore, S. N. ; Sillanpää, A. ; Sitarek, J. ; Snidaric, I. ; Sobczynska, D. ; Stamerra, A. ; Steinbring, T. ; Strzys, M. ; Takalo, L. ; Takami, H. ; Tavecchio, F. ; Temnikov, P. ; Terzić, T. ; Tescaro, D. ; Teshima, M. ; Thaele, J. ; Torres, D. F. ; Toyama, T. ; Treves, A. ; Vogler, P. ; Will, M. ; Zanin, R. ; Buson, S. ; D'Ammando, F. ; Lähteenmäki, A. ; Hovatta, T. ; Kovalev, Y. Y. ; Lister, M. L. ; Max-Moerbeck, W. ; Mundell, C. ; Pushkarev, A. B. ; Rastorgueva-Foi, E. ; Readhead, A. C. S. ; Richards, J. L. ; Tammi, J. ; Sanchez, D. A. ; Tornikoski, M. ; Savolainen, T. ; Steele, I. / Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012. In: Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2016 ; Vol. 591.
@article{0919afd84aac4b30a342c1d959c72081,
title = "Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012",
abstract = "1ES 1011+496 $(z=0.212)$ was discovered in very high energy (VHE, E >100 GeV) $\gamma$-rays with MAGIC in 2007. The absence of simultaneous data at lower energies led to a rather incomplete characterization of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). We study the source properties and the emission mechanisms, probing whether a simple one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) scenario is able to explain the observed broadband spectrum. We analyzed VHE to radio data from 2011 and 2012 collected by MAGIC, $Fermi$-LAT, $Swift$, KVA, OVRO, and Mets\{"}ahovi in addition to optical polarimetry data and radio maps from the Liverpool Telescope and MOJAVE. The VHE spectrum was fit with a simple power law with a photon index of $3.69\pm0.22$ and a flux above 150 GeV of $(1.46\pm0.16)\times10^{-11}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. 1ES 1011+496 was found to be in a generally quiescent state at all observed wavelengths, showing only moderate variability from radio to X-rays. A low degree of polarization of less than 10{\%} was measured in optical, while some bright features polarized up to 60{\%} were observed in the radio jet. A similar trend in the rotation of the electric vector position angle was found in optical and radio. The radio maps indicated a superluminal motion of $1.8\pm0.4\,c$, which is the highest speed statistically significantly measured so far in a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac. For the first time, the high-energy bump in the broadband SED of 1ES 1011+496 could be fully characterized from 0.1 GeV to 1 TeV which permitted a more reliable interpretation within the one-zone SSC scenario. The polarimetry data suggest that at least part of the optical emission has its origin in some of the bright radio features, while the low polarization in optical might be due to the contribution of parts of the radio jet with different orientations of the magnetic field to the optical emission.",
keywords = "astro-ph.HE",
author = "J. Aleksić and S. Ansoldi and Antonelli, {L. A.} and P. Antoranz and C. Arcaro and A. Babic and P. Bangale and Almeida, {U. Barres de} and Barrio, {J. A.} and Gonz{\'a}lez, {J. Becerra} and W. Bednarek and E. Bernardini and B. Biasuzzi and A. Biland and O. Blanch and S. Bonnefoy and G. Bonnoli and F. Borracci and T. Bretz and E. Carmona and A. Carosi and P. Colin and E. Colombo and Contreras, {J. L.} and J. Cortina and S. Covino and Vela, {P. Da} and F. Dazzi and Angelis, {A. De} and Caneva, {G. De} and Lotto, {B. De} and Wilhelmi, {E. de O. na} and Mendez, {C. Delgado} and Pierro, {F. Di} and Prester, {D. Dominis} and D. Dorner and M. Doro and S. Einecke and D. Eisenacher and D. Elsaesser and A. Fern{\'a}ndez-Barral and D. Fidalgo and Fonseca, {M. V.} and L. Font and K. Frantzen and C. Fruck and D. Galindo and L{\'o}pez, {R. J. Garc{\'i}a} and M. Garczarczyk and Terrats, {D. Garrido} and M. Gaug and N. Godinović and noz, {A. Gonz{\'a}lez Mu} and Gozzini, {S. R.} and D. Hadasch and Y. Hanabata and M. Hayashida and J. Herrera and J. Hose and D. Hrupec and W. Idec and V. Kadenius and H. Kellermann and Knoetig, {M. L.} and K. Kodani and Y. Konno and J. Krause and H. Kubo and J. Kushida and Barbera, {A. La} and D. Lelas and N. Lewandowska and E. Lindfors and S. Lombardi and F. Longo and M. L{\'o}pez and R. L{\'o}pez-Coto and A. L{\'o}pez-Oramas and E. Lorenz and I. Lozano and M. Makariev and K. Mallot and G. Maneva and K. Mannheim and L. Maraschi and B. Marcote and M. Mariotti and M. Mart{\'i}nez and D. Mazin and U. Menzel and Miranda, {J. M.} and R. Mirzoyan and A. Moralejo and P. Munar-Adrover and D. Nakajima and V. Neustroev and A. Niedzwiecki and Rosillo, {M. Nievas} and K. Nilsson and K. Nishijima and K. Noda and R. Orito and A. Overkemping and S. Paiano and M. Palatiello and D. Paneque and R. Paoletti and Paredes, {J. M.} and X. Paredes-Fortuny and M. Persic and J. Poutanen and Moroni, {P. G. Prada} and E. Prandini and I. Puljak and R. Reinthal and W. Rhode and M. Rib{\'o} and J. Rico and Garcia, {J. Rodriguez} and T. Saito and K. Saito and K. Satalecka and V. Scalzotto and V. Scapin and T. Schweizer and Shore, {S. N.} and A. Sillanp{\"a}{\"a} and J. Sitarek and I. Snidaric and D. Sobczynska and A. Stamerra and T. Steinbring and M. Strzys and L. Takalo and H. Takami and F. Tavecchio and P. Temnikov and T. Terzić and D. Tescaro and M. Teshima and J. Thaele and Torres, {D. F.} and T. Toyama and A. Treves and P. Vogler and M. Will and R. Zanin and S. Buson and F. D'Ammando and A. L{\"a}hteenm{\"a}ki and T. Hovatta and Kovalev, {Y. Y.} and Lister, {M. L.} and W. Max-Moerbeck and C. Mundell and Pushkarev, {A. B.} and E. Rastorgueva-Foi and Readhead, {A. C. S.} and Richards, {J. L.} and J. Tammi and Sanchez, {D. A.} and M. Tornikoski and T. Savolainen and I. Steele",
year = "2016",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1051/0004-6361/201527176",
language = "English",
volume = "591",
journal = "Astronomy & Astrophysics",
issn = "0004-6361",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012

AU - Aleksić, J.

AU - Ansoldi, S.

AU - Antonelli, L. A.

AU - Antoranz, P.

AU - Arcaro, C.

AU - Babic, A.

AU - Bangale, P.

AU - Almeida, U. Barres de

AU - Barrio, J. A.

AU - González, J. Becerra

AU - Bednarek, W.

AU - Bernardini, E.

AU - Biasuzzi, B.

AU - Biland, A.

AU - Blanch, O.

AU - Bonnefoy, S.

AU - Bonnoli, G.

AU - Borracci, F.

AU - Bretz, T.

AU - Carmona, E.

AU - Carosi, A.

AU - Colin, P.

AU - Colombo, E.

AU - Contreras, J. L.

AU - Cortina, J.

AU - Covino, S.

AU - Vela, P. Da

AU - Dazzi, F.

AU - Angelis, A. De

AU - Caneva, G. De

AU - Lotto, B. De

AU - Wilhelmi, E. de O. na

AU - Mendez, C. Delgado

AU - Pierro, F. Di

AU - Prester, D. Dominis

AU - Dorner, D.

AU - Doro, M.

AU - Einecke, S.

AU - Eisenacher, D.

AU - Elsaesser, D.

AU - Fernández-Barral, A.

AU - Fidalgo, D.

AU - Fonseca, M. V.

AU - Font, L.

AU - Frantzen, K.

AU - Fruck, C.

AU - Galindo, D.

AU - López, R. J. García

AU - Garczarczyk, M.

AU - Terrats, D. Garrido

AU - Gaug, M.

AU - Godinović, N.

AU - noz, A. González Mu

AU - Gozzini, S. R.

AU - Hadasch, D.

AU - Hanabata, Y.

AU - Hayashida, M.

AU - Herrera, J.

AU - Hose, J.

AU - Hrupec, D.

AU - Idec, W.

AU - Kadenius, V.

AU - Kellermann, H.

AU - Knoetig, M. L.

AU - Kodani, K.

AU - Konno, Y.

AU - Krause, J.

AU - Kubo, H.

AU - Kushida, J.

AU - Barbera, A. La

AU - Lelas, D.

AU - Lewandowska, N.

AU - Lindfors, E.

AU - Lombardi, S.

AU - Longo, F.

AU - López, M.

AU - López-Coto, R.

AU - López-Oramas, A.

AU - Lorenz, E.

AU - Lozano, I.

AU - Makariev, M.

AU - Mallot, K.

AU - Maneva, G.

AU - Mannheim, K.

AU - Maraschi, L.

AU - Marcote, B.

AU - Mariotti, M.

AU - Martínez, M.

AU - Mazin, D.

AU - Menzel, U.

AU - Miranda, J. M.

AU - Mirzoyan, R.

AU - Moralejo, A.

AU - Munar-Adrover, P.

AU - Nakajima, D.

AU - Neustroev, V.

AU - Niedzwiecki, A.

AU - Rosillo, M. Nievas

AU - Nilsson, K.

AU - Nishijima, K.

AU - Noda, K.

AU - Orito, R.

AU - Overkemping, A.

AU - Paiano, S.

AU - Palatiello, M.

AU - Paneque, D.

AU - Paoletti, R.

AU - Paredes, J. M.

AU - Paredes-Fortuny, X.

AU - Persic, M.

AU - Poutanen, J.

AU - Moroni, P. G. Prada

AU - Prandini, E.

AU - Puljak, I.

AU - Reinthal, R.

AU - Rhode, W.

AU - Ribó, M.

AU - Rico, J.

AU - Garcia, J. Rodriguez

AU - Saito, T.

AU - Saito, K.

AU - Satalecka, K.

AU - Scalzotto, V.

AU - Scapin, V.

AU - Schweizer, T.

AU - Shore, S. N.

AU - Sillanpää, A.

AU - Sitarek, J.

AU - Snidaric, I.

AU - Sobczynska, D.

AU - Stamerra, A.

AU - Steinbring, T.

AU - Strzys, M.

AU - Takalo, L.

AU - Takami, H.

AU - Tavecchio, F.

AU - Temnikov, P.

AU - Terzić, T.

AU - Tescaro, D.

AU - Teshima, M.

AU - Thaele, J.

AU - Torres, D. F.

AU - Toyama, T.

AU - Treves, A.

AU - Vogler, P.

AU - Will, M.

AU - Zanin, R.

AU - Buson, S.

AU - D'Ammando, F.

AU - Lähteenmäki, A.

AU - Hovatta, T.

AU - Kovalev, Y. Y.

AU - Lister, M. L.

AU - Max-Moerbeck, W.

AU - Mundell, C.

AU - Pushkarev, A. B.

AU - Rastorgueva-Foi, E.

AU - Readhead, A. C. S.

AU - Richards, J. L.

AU - Tammi, J.

AU - Sanchez, D. A.

AU - Tornikoski, M.

AU - Savolainen, T.

AU - Steele, I.

PY - 2016/7

Y1 - 2016/7

N2 - 1ES 1011+496 $(z=0.212)$ was discovered in very high energy (VHE, E >100 GeV) $\gamma$-rays with MAGIC in 2007. The absence of simultaneous data at lower energies led to a rather incomplete characterization of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). We study the source properties and the emission mechanisms, probing whether a simple one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) scenario is able to explain the observed broadband spectrum. We analyzed VHE to radio data from 2011 and 2012 collected by MAGIC, $Fermi$-LAT, $Swift$, KVA, OVRO, and Mets\"ahovi in addition to optical polarimetry data and radio maps from the Liverpool Telescope and MOJAVE. The VHE spectrum was fit with a simple power law with a photon index of $3.69\pm0.22$ and a flux above 150 GeV of $(1.46\pm0.16)\times10^{-11}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. 1ES 1011+496 was found to be in a generally quiescent state at all observed wavelengths, showing only moderate variability from radio to X-rays. A low degree of polarization of less than 10% was measured in optical, while some bright features polarized up to 60% were observed in the radio jet. A similar trend in the rotation of the electric vector position angle was found in optical and radio. The radio maps indicated a superluminal motion of $1.8\pm0.4\,c$, which is the highest speed statistically significantly measured so far in a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac. For the first time, the high-energy bump in the broadband SED of 1ES 1011+496 could be fully characterized from 0.1 GeV to 1 TeV which permitted a more reliable interpretation within the one-zone SSC scenario. The polarimetry data suggest that at least part of the optical emission has its origin in some of the bright radio features, while the low polarization in optical might be due to the contribution of parts of the radio jet with different orientations of the magnetic field to the optical emission.

AB - 1ES 1011+496 $(z=0.212)$ was discovered in very high energy (VHE, E >100 GeV) $\gamma$-rays with MAGIC in 2007. The absence of simultaneous data at lower energies led to a rather incomplete characterization of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). We study the source properties and the emission mechanisms, probing whether a simple one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) scenario is able to explain the observed broadband spectrum. We analyzed VHE to radio data from 2011 and 2012 collected by MAGIC, $Fermi$-LAT, $Swift$, KVA, OVRO, and Mets\"ahovi in addition to optical polarimetry data and radio maps from the Liverpool Telescope and MOJAVE. The VHE spectrum was fit with a simple power law with a photon index of $3.69\pm0.22$ and a flux above 150 GeV of $(1.46\pm0.16)\times10^{-11}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. 1ES 1011+496 was found to be in a generally quiescent state at all observed wavelengths, showing only moderate variability from radio to X-rays. A low degree of polarization of less than 10% was measured in optical, while some bright features polarized up to 60% were observed in the radio jet. A similar trend in the rotation of the electric vector position angle was found in optical and radio. The radio maps indicated a superluminal motion of $1.8\pm0.4\,c$, which is the highest speed statistically significantly measured so far in a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac. For the first time, the high-energy bump in the broadband SED of 1ES 1011+496 could be fully characterized from 0.1 GeV to 1 TeV which permitted a more reliable interpretation within the one-zone SSC scenario. The polarimetry data suggest that at least part of the optical emission has its origin in some of the bright radio features, while the low polarization in optical might be due to the contribution of parts of the radio jet with different orientations of the magnetic field to the optical emission.

KW - astro-ph.HE

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527176

U2 - 10.1051/0004-6361/201527176

DO - 10.1051/0004-6361/201527176

M3 - Article

VL - 591

JO - Astronomy & Astrophysics

JF - Astronomy & Astrophysics

SN - 0004-6361

M1 - A10

ER -