Influence of setting liquid composition and liquid-to-powder ratio on properties of a Mg-substituted calcium phosphate cement

S. Pina, S. M. Olhero, Sabina Gheduzzi, Anthony W. Miles, J. M. F. Ferreira

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The influence of four variables on various properties of a Mg-substituted calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was investigated. The variables were the heat treatment temperature of the precipitated powders, the composition of the setting liquid, the liquid-to-powder ratio (LPR), and the time over which hardened specimens were cured in air. The properties analysed were the phase composition of the starting powder, the initial setting time, the evolution of the storage shear modulus (G) and the loss shear modulus (G '') with the cement paste curing time (t), and the compressive strength. The presence of alpha-TCP in CPC facilitated the setting and hardening properties due to its progressive dissolution and the formation of brushite crystals. As far as the liquid composition is concerned, in cases where citric acid was used, adding a rheology modifier (10 wt.% polyethylene glycol or 0.5 wt.% hydroxyl propylmethylcellulose) to the acid led to an increase in the initial setting time, while an increase in the acid concentration led to a decrease in the initial setting time. The initial setting time showed to be very sensitive towards the LPR. The evolution of C and G '' with curing time reflected the internal structural changes of cement pastes during the setting process. The compressive strength of the wet-hardened cement specimens with and without Mg increased with curing time increasing, being slightly higher in the case of Mg-substituted CPC. The results suggest that Mg-substituted CPC holds a promise for uses in orthopaedic and trauma surgery such as for filling bone defects.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1233-1240
Number of pages8
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Issue number4
Early online date10 Dec 2008
Publication statusPublished - May 2009


  • Rheology
  • Cement
  • Setting time
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium phosphate


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