Influence of Leakage Flows on Hot Gas Ingress

Marios Patinios, Irvin Ong, James Scobie, Gary Lock, Carl Sangan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

One of the most important problems facing gas turbine designers today is the ingestion of hot mainstream gases into the wheel-space between the turbine disc (rotor) and its adjacent casing (stator). A rim seal is fitted at the periphery and a superposed sealant flow – typically fed through the bore of the stator - is used to prevent ingress. The majority of research studies investigating ingress do so in the absence of any leakage paths that exist throughout the engine’s architecture. These inevitable pathways are found between the mating interfaces of adjacent pieces of hardware. In an environment where the turbine is subjected to aggressive thermal and centrifugal loading these interface gaps can be difficult to predict and the resulting leakage flows which pass through them even harder to account for.
This paper describes experimental results from a research facility which experimentally models hot gas ingestion into the wheel-space of an axial turbine stage. The facility was specifically designed to incorporate leakage flows through the stator disc; leakage flows were introduced axially through the stator shroud or directly underneath the vane carrier ring. Measurements of CO2 gas concentration, static pressure and total pressure were used to examine the wheel-space flow structure with and without ingress from the mainstream gas-path. Data is presented for a simple axial-clearance rim-seal. The results support two distinct flow-structures, which are shown to be dependent on the mass-flow ratio of bore and leakage flows. Once the leakage flow was increased above a certain threshold, the flow structure is shown to transition from a classical Batchelor-type rotor-stator system to a vortex-dominated structure. The existence of a toroidal vortex immediately inboard of the outer rim-seal is shown to encourage ingestion.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2018:
Subtitle of host publicationTurbine Technical Conference and Exposition
Pages1-11
Number of pages11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2018

Publication series

NameProceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo
Volume5B-2018

Fingerprint

Leakage (fluid)
Stators
Flow structure
Seals
Wheels
Gases
Turbines
Vortex flow
Rotors
Sealants
Gas turbines
Engines
Hardware

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Patinios, M., Ong, I., Scobie, J., Lock, G., & Sangan, C. (2018). Influence of Leakage Flows on Hot Gas Ingress. In Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2018: : Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition (pp. 1-11). [GT2018-75071] (Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo; Vol. 5B-2018). https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2018-75071

Influence of Leakage Flows on Hot Gas Ingress. / Patinios, Marios; Ong, Irvin; Scobie, James; Lock, Gary; Sangan, Carl.

Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2018: : Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition. 2018. p. 1-11 GT2018-75071 (Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo; Vol. 5B-2018).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Patinios, M, Ong, I, Scobie, J, Lock, G & Sangan, C 2018, Influence of Leakage Flows on Hot Gas Ingress. in Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2018: : Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition., GT2018-75071, Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, vol. 5B-2018, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2018-75071
Patinios M, Ong I, Scobie J, Lock G, Sangan C. Influence of Leakage Flows on Hot Gas Ingress. In Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2018: : Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition. 2018. p. 1-11. GT2018-75071. (Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo). https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2018-75071
Patinios, Marios ; Ong, Irvin ; Scobie, James ; Lock, Gary ; Sangan, Carl. / Influence of Leakage Flows on Hot Gas Ingress. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2018: : Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition. 2018. pp. 1-11 (Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo).
@inproceedings{b7a39a05531b4ce89f2f199180775389,
title = "Influence of Leakage Flows on Hot Gas Ingress",
abstract = "One of the most important problems facing gas turbine designers today is the ingestion of hot mainstream gases into the wheel-space between the turbine disc (rotor) and its adjacent casing (stator). A rim seal is fitted at the periphery and a superposed sealant flow – typically fed through the bore of the stator - is used to prevent ingress. The majority of research studies investigating ingress do so in the absence of any leakage paths that exist throughout the engine’s architecture. These inevitable pathways are found between the mating interfaces of adjacent pieces of hardware. In an environment where the turbine is subjected to aggressive thermal and centrifugal loading these interface gaps can be difficult to predict and the resulting leakage flows which pass through them even harder to account for.This paper describes experimental results from a research facility which experimentally models hot gas ingestion into the wheel-space of an axial turbine stage. The facility was specifically designed to incorporate leakage flows through the stator disc; leakage flows were introduced axially through the stator shroud or directly underneath the vane carrier ring. Measurements of CO2 gas concentration, static pressure and total pressure were used to examine the wheel-space flow structure with and without ingress from the mainstream gas-path. Data is presented for a simple axial-clearance rim-seal. The results support two distinct flow-structures, which are shown to be dependent on the mass-flow ratio of bore and leakage flows. Once the leakage flow was increased above a certain threshold, the flow structure is shown to transition from a classical Batchelor-type rotor-stator system to a vortex-dominated structure. The existence of a toroidal vortex immediately inboard of the outer rim-seal is shown to encourage ingestion.",
author = "Marios Patinios and Irvin Ong and James Scobie and Gary Lock and Carl Sangan",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1115/GT2018-75071",
language = "English",
isbn = "9780791851098",
series = "Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo",
pages = "1--11",
booktitle = "Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2018:",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Influence of Leakage Flows on Hot Gas Ingress

AU - Patinios, Marios

AU - Ong, Irvin

AU - Scobie, James

AU - Lock, Gary

AU - Sangan, Carl

PY - 2018/8/30

Y1 - 2018/8/30

N2 - One of the most important problems facing gas turbine designers today is the ingestion of hot mainstream gases into the wheel-space between the turbine disc (rotor) and its adjacent casing (stator). A rim seal is fitted at the periphery and a superposed sealant flow – typically fed through the bore of the stator - is used to prevent ingress. The majority of research studies investigating ingress do so in the absence of any leakage paths that exist throughout the engine’s architecture. These inevitable pathways are found between the mating interfaces of adjacent pieces of hardware. In an environment where the turbine is subjected to aggressive thermal and centrifugal loading these interface gaps can be difficult to predict and the resulting leakage flows which pass through them even harder to account for.This paper describes experimental results from a research facility which experimentally models hot gas ingestion into the wheel-space of an axial turbine stage. The facility was specifically designed to incorporate leakage flows through the stator disc; leakage flows were introduced axially through the stator shroud or directly underneath the vane carrier ring. Measurements of CO2 gas concentration, static pressure and total pressure were used to examine the wheel-space flow structure with and without ingress from the mainstream gas-path. Data is presented for a simple axial-clearance rim-seal. The results support two distinct flow-structures, which are shown to be dependent on the mass-flow ratio of bore and leakage flows. Once the leakage flow was increased above a certain threshold, the flow structure is shown to transition from a classical Batchelor-type rotor-stator system to a vortex-dominated structure. The existence of a toroidal vortex immediately inboard of the outer rim-seal is shown to encourage ingestion.

AB - One of the most important problems facing gas turbine designers today is the ingestion of hot mainstream gases into the wheel-space between the turbine disc (rotor) and its adjacent casing (stator). A rim seal is fitted at the periphery and a superposed sealant flow – typically fed through the bore of the stator - is used to prevent ingress. The majority of research studies investigating ingress do so in the absence of any leakage paths that exist throughout the engine’s architecture. These inevitable pathways are found between the mating interfaces of adjacent pieces of hardware. In an environment where the turbine is subjected to aggressive thermal and centrifugal loading these interface gaps can be difficult to predict and the resulting leakage flows which pass through them even harder to account for.This paper describes experimental results from a research facility which experimentally models hot gas ingestion into the wheel-space of an axial turbine stage. The facility was specifically designed to incorporate leakage flows through the stator disc; leakage flows were introduced axially through the stator shroud or directly underneath the vane carrier ring. Measurements of CO2 gas concentration, static pressure and total pressure were used to examine the wheel-space flow structure with and without ingress from the mainstream gas-path. Data is presented for a simple axial-clearance rim-seal. The results support two distinct flow-structures, which are shown to be dependent on the mass-flow ratio of bore and leakage flows. Once the leakage flow was increased above a certain threshold, the flow structure is shown to transition from a classical Batchelor-type rotor-stator system to a vortex-dominated structure. The existence of a toroidal vortex immediately inboard of the outer rim-seal is shown to encourage ingestion.

UR - http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/proceeding.aspx?articleID=2701068

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85054102292&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1115/GT2018-75071

DO - 10.1115/GT2018-75071

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 9780791851098

T3 - Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo

SP - 1

EP - 11

BT - Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2018:

ER -