Alkali metal cations play an important role in directing formation of zeolite frameworks in the absence of organic structure directing agents. The interplay between Na and Cs cations in directing formation of zeolite RHO is the main focus of this study. Depending on the ratio of Na and Cs in the precursor gel, with no organic structure directing agents, several different zeolites form during synthesis. This indicates that pure zeolite RHO can only be obtained at a very specific Cs to Na ratio. More generally, this may shed light on the bigger question of how zeolite pores form in the absence of organic structure directing agents.