Individualised tobacco affordability in the UK 2002 - 2014: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

Timea R. Partos, J. Robert Branston, Rosemary Hiscock, Anna Gilmore, Ann McNeill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective
Existing measures of tobacco affordability (smokers' purchasing power for tobacco) use national estimates of income and average cigarette prices, and exclude roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco. This study developed an individualised measure of tobacco affordability using smokers' own incomesand factory-made (FM) or RYO tobacco purchase prices, and explored how it was impacted by taxation changes, individual characteristics and purchase patterns.

Design
Cross-sectional survey data collated from 10 waves of a longitudinal cohort study.

Data Sources
Adult smokers (N=4062) from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project United Kingdom (UK), surveyed between 2002 and 2014, providing 8943 observations over 10 surveys.

Analysis
Affordability was calculated as the percentage of annual income remaining after annual tobacco expenditure. Multilevel linear regression models were used with affordability as outcome and time, sex, age, geographical region, ethnicity, education, nicotine dependence, and tobacco purchase source as predictor variables.

Results
Affordability of FM cigarettes decreased significantly from 91.5% (±95%CI:91.0, 91.9) in 2002 to 87.8% (87.0,88.5) in 2014; and RYO from 96.3% (95.7,96.9) in 2006 to 93.7% (93.0,94.4) in 2014. Affordability was significantly lower for FM than RYO. Year-to-year decreases, were not statistically significant. Tobacco was more affordable for males, those with higher education, less dependent
smokers, and those purchasing from non-store (potentially illicit) or non-UK sources.

Conclusions
An individualised measure of tobacco affordability provided useful insights into the impact of tobacco taxes, social inequalities and purchase patterns in the UK. Although tobacco became less affordable, the annual rate of decline was low, suggesting annual tax rises were not large enough.
LanguageEnglish
Article number054027
Number of pages11
JournalTobacco Control
Early online date23 Jul 2018
DOIs
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Jul 2018

Fingerprint

nicotine
Tobacco
evaluation
purchase
factory
Taxes
Tobacco Products
Linear Models
United Kingdom
Education
Tobacco Use Disorder
Information Storage and Retrieval
income
Tobacco Use
Health Expenditures
purchasing power
Longitudinal Studies
social inequality
taxation
taxes

Keywords

  • Taxation
  • Price
  • Tobacco
  • Hand-rolled/RYO tobacco
  • Economics
  • Disparities

Cite this

@article{453b1165672744289c189337c63c0788,
title = "Individualised tobacco affordability in the UK 2002 - 2014: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project",
abstract = "ObjectiveExisting measures of tobacco affordability (smokers' purchasing power for tobacco) use national estimates of income and average cigarette prices, and exclude roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco. This study developed an individualised measure of tobacco affordability using smokers' own incomesand factory-made (FM) or RYO tobacco purchase prices, and explored how it was impacted by taxation changes, individual characteristics and purchase patterns.DesignCross-sectional survey data collated from 10 waves of a longitudinal cohort study.Data SourcesAdult smokers (N=4062) from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project United Kingdom (UK), surveyed between 2002 and 2014, providing 8943 observations over 10 surveys.AnalysisAffordability was calculated as the percentage of annual income remaining after annual tobacco expenditure. Multilevel linear regression models were used with affordability as outcome and time, sex, age, geographical region, ethnicity, education, nicotine dependence, and tobacco purchase source as predictor variables. ResultsAffordability of FM cigarettes decreased significantly from 91.5{\%} (±95{\%}CI:91.0, 91.9) in 2002 to 87.8{\%} (87.0,88.5) in 2014; and RYO from 96.3{\%} (95.7,96.9) in 2006 to 93.7{\%} (93.0,94.4) in 2014. Affordability was significantly lower for FM than RYO. Year-to-year decreases, were not statistically significant. Tobacco was more affordable for males, those with higher education, less dependentsmokers, and those purchasing from non-store (potentially illicit) or non-UK sources.ConclusionsAn individualised measure of tobacco affordability provided useful insights into the impact of tobacco taxes, social inequalities and purchase patterns in the UK. Although tobacco became less affordable, the annual rate of decline was low, suggesting annual tax rises were not large enough.",
keywords = "Taxation, Price, Tobacco, Hand-rolled/RYO tobacco, Economics, Disparities",
author = "Partos, {Timea R.} and Branston, {J. Robert} and Rosemary Hiscock and Anna Gilmore and Ann McNeill",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "23",
doi = "10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-054027",
language = "English",
journal = "Tobacco Control",
issn = "1468-3318",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Individualised tobacco affordability in the UK 2002 - 2014

T2 - Tobacco Control

AU - Partos, Timea R.

AU - Branston, J. Robert

AU - Hiscock, Rosemary

AU - Gilmore, Anna

AU - McNeill, Ann

PY - 2018/7/23

Y1 - 2018/7/23

N2 - ObjectiveExisting measures of tobacco affordability (smokers' purchasing power for tobacco) use national estimates of income and average cigarette prices, and exclude roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco. This study developed an individualised measure of tobacco affordability using smokers' own incomesand factory-made (FM) or RYO tobacco purchase prices, and explored how it was impacted by taxation changes, individual characteristics and purchase patterns.DesignCross-sectional survey data collated from 10 waves of a longitudinal cohort study.Data SourcesAdult smokers (N=4062) from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project United Kingdom (UK), surveyed between 2002 and 2014, providing 8943 observations over 10 surveys.AnalysisAffordability was calculated as the percentage of annual income remaining after annual tobacco expenditure. Multilevel linear regression models were used with affordability as outcome and time, sex, age, geographical region, ethnicity, education, nicotine dependence, and tobacco purchase source as predictor variables. ResultsAffordability of FM cigarettes decreased significantly from 91.5% (±95%CI:91.0, 91.9) in 2002 to 87.8% (87.0,88.5) in 2014; and RYO from 96.3% (95.7,96.9) in 2006 to 93.7% (93.0,94.4) in 2014. Affordability was significantly lower for FM than RYO. Year-to-year decreases, were not statistically significant. Tobacco was more affordable for males, those with higher education, less dependentsmokers, and those purchasing from non-store (potentially illicit) or non-UK sources.ConclusionsAn individualised measure of tobacco affordability provided useful insights into the impact of tobacco taxes, social inequalities and purchase patterns in the UK. Although tobacco became less affordable, the annual rate of decline was low, suggesting annual tax rises were not large enough.

AB - ObjectiveExisting measures of tobacco affordability (smokers' purchasing power for tobacco) use national estimates of income and average cigarette prices, and exclude roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco. This study developed an individualised measure of tobacco affordability using smokers' own incomesand factory-made (FM) or RYO tobacco purchase prices, and explored how it was impacted by taxation changes, individual characteristics and purchase patterns.DesignCross-sectional survey data collated from 10 waves of a longitudinal cohort study.Data SourcesAdult smokers (N=4062) from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project United Kingdom (UK), surveyed between 2002 and 2014, providing 8943 observations over 10 surveys.AnalysisAffordability was calculated as the percentage of annual income remaining after annual tobacco expenditure. Multilevel linear regression models were used with affordability as outcome and time, sex, age, geographical region, ethnicity, education, nicotine dependence, and tobacco purchase source as predictor variables. ResultsAffordability of FM cigarettes decreased significantly from 91.5% (±95%CI:91.0, 91.9) in 2002 to 87.8% (87.0,88.5) in 2014; and RYO from 96.3% (95.7,96.9) in 2006 to 93.7% (93.0,94.4) in 2014. Affordability was significantly lower for FM than RYO. Year-to-year decreases, were not statistically significant. Tobacco was more affordable for males, those with higher education, less dependentsmokers, and those purchasing from non-store (potentially illicit) or non-UK sources.ConclusionsAn individualised measure of tobacco affordability provided useful insights into the impact of tobacco taxes, social inequalities and purchase patterns in the UK. Although tobacco became less affordable, the annual rate of decline was low, suggesting annual tax rises were not large enough.

KW - Taxation

KW - Price

KW - Tobacco

KW - Hand-rolled/RYO tobacco

KW - Economics

KW - Disparities

U2 - 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-054027

DO - 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-054027

M3 - Article

JO - Tobacco Control

JF - Tobacco Control

SN - 1468-3318

M1 - 054027

ER -