In situ non-invasive Raman spectroscopic characterisation of succinic acid polymorphism during segmented flow crystallisation

Anuradha R. Pallipurath, Pierre Baptiste Flandrin, Lois E. Wayment, Chick C. Wilson, Karen Robertson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The kinetically regulated automated input crystalliser for Raman spectroscopy (KRAIC-R) combines highly controlled crystallisation environments, via tri segmented flow, with non-invasive confocal Raman spectroscopy. Taking advantage of the highly reproducible crystallisation environment within a segmented flow crystalliser and the non-invasive nature of confocal spectroscopy, we are able to shine light on the nucleation and growth of Raman active polymorphic materials without inducing unrepresentative crystallisation events through our analysis technique. Using the KRAIC-R we have probed the nucleation and subsequent growth of succinic acid. Succinic acid typically crystallises as β-SA from solution-based crystallisation although some examples of a small proportion of α-SA have been reported in the β-SA product. Here we show that α-SA and β-SA nucleate concomitantly but undergo Ostwald ripening to a predominantly β-SA product.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-303
Number of pages10
JournalMolecular Systems Design and Engineering
Issue number1
Early online date18 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry

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