Immunometabolic profiling of cervicovaginal lavages identifies key signatures associated with adenomyosis

Georgia M. Lorentzen, Paweł Łaniewski, Haiyan Cui, Denise J. Roe, Jamal Mourad, Nichole D. Mahnert, Leslie V. Farland, Melissa M. Herbst-Kralovetz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (SciVal)


Adenomyosis is a burdensome gynecologic condition that is associated with pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and abnormal uterine bleeding, leading to a negative impact on quality of life; and yet is often left undiagnosed. We recruited 108 women undergoing hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions and collected non-invasive cervicovaginal lavage samples for immunometabolic profiling. Patients were grouped according to adenomyosis status. We investigated the levels of 72 soluble immune proteins and >900 metabolites using multiplex immunoassays and an untargeted global metabolomics platform. There were statistically significant alterations in the levels of several immune proteins and a large quantity of metabolites, particularly cytokines related to type II immunity and amino acids, respectively. Enrichment analysis revealed that pyrimidine metabolism, carnitine synthesis, and histidine/histamine metabolism were significantly upregulated pathways in adenomyosis. This study demonstrates utility of non-invasive sampling combined with immunometabolic profiling for adenomyosis detection and a greater pathophysiological understanding of this enigmatic condition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105508
Issue number12
Early online date5 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - 22 Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported in part by the Mary Kay Foundation (grant 017-48 ), Phoenix Friends of the University of Arizona Cancer Center and the Women Investing in Science and Health (WISH) at Banner Health Foundation. These funding sources had no role in study design; in collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication. We are grateful to the patients that enrolled in the study. We would like to acknowledge Regina Montero and Elisa Martinez for the kind assistance in patient recruitment, sample, and clinical data collection.


  • Health sciences
  • Immunology
  • Metabolomics
  • Pathophysiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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