Going into the groin: injection into the femoral vein among people who inject drugs in three urban areas of England

V. D. Hope, J. Scott, K. J. Cullen, J. V. Parry, F. Ncube, M. Hickman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 4 Citations

Abstract

Background: There have been increasing concerns about injection into the femoral vein – groin injecting– among people who inject drugs in a number of countries, though most studies have been small. The extent, reasons and harms associated with groin injecting are examined. Method: Participants were recruited using respondent driven sampling (2006–2009). Weighted data was examined using bivariate analyses and logistic regression. Results: The mean age was 32 years; 25% were women (N = 855). During the preceding 28 days, 94% had injected heroin and 13% shared needles/syringes. Overall, 53% reported ever groin injecting, with 9.8%first doing so at the same age as starting to inject. Common reasons given for groin injecting included: “Can’t get a vein elsewhere” (68%); “It is discreet” (18%); and “It is quicker” (14%). During the preceding28 days, 41% had groin injected, for 77% this was the only body area used (for these “It is discreet” was more frequently given as a reason). In the multivariable analysis, groin injection was associated with: swabbing injection sites; saving filters for reuse; and receiving opiate substitution therapy. It was less common among those injecting into two body areas, and when other people (rather than services) were the main source of needles. Groin injection was more common among those with hepatitis C and reporting ever having deep vein thrombosis or septicaemia.Conclusions: Groin injection was common, often due to poor vascular access, but for some it was out of choice. Interventions are required to reduce injecting risk and this practice.
LanguageEnglish
Pages239-245
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume152
Early online date9 Apr 2015
DOIs
StatusPublished - 1 Jul 2015

Fingerprint

Jetties
Femoral Vein
Groin
England
Injections
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Needles
Opiate Alkaloids
Syringes
Heroin
Hepatitis C
Venous Thrombosis
Blood Vessels
Logistics
Veins
Sepsis
Substitution reactions
Logistic Models
Sampling

Keywords

  • People who inject drugs Femoral vein Risk behaviours Bacterial infections Viral infections

Cite this

Going into the groin : injection into the femoral vein among people who inject drugs in three urban areas of England. / Hope, V. D.; Scott, J.; Cullen, K. J.; Parry, J. V.; Ncube, F.; Hickman, M.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 152, 01.07.2015, p. 239-245.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hope, V. D. ; Scott, J. ; Cullen, K. J. ; Parry, J. V. ; Ncube, F. ; Hickman, M./ Going into the groin : injection into the femoral vein among people who inject drugs in three urban areas of England. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2015 ; Vol. 152. pp. 239-245
@article{bae90fa9ea1345e4b67849ef343738c4,
title = "Going into the groin: injection into the femoral vein among people who inject drugs in three urban areas of England",
abstract = "Background: There have been increasing concerns about injection into the femoral vein – groin injecting– among people who inject drugs in a number of countries, though most studies have been small. The extent, reasons and harms associated with groin injecting are examined. Method: Participants were recruited using respondent driven sampling (2006–2009). Weighted data was examined using bivariate analyses and logistic regression. Results: The mean age was 32 years; 25{\%} were women (N = 855). During the preceding 28 days, 94{\%} had injected heroin and 13{\%} shared needles/syringes. Overall, 53{\%} reported ever groin injecting, with 9.8{\%}first doing so at the same age as starting to inject. Common reasons given for groin injecting included: “Can’t get a vein elsewhere” (68{\%}); “It is discreet” (18{\%}); and “It is quicker” (14{\%}). During the preceding28 days, 41{\%} had groin injected, for 77{\%} this was the only body area used (for these “It is discreet” was more frequently given as a reason). In the multivariable analysis, groin injection was associated with: swabbing injection sites; saving filters for reuse; and receiving opiate substitution therapy. It was less common among those injecting into two body areas, and when other people (rather than services) were the main source of needles. Groin injection was more common among those with hepatitis C and reporting ever having deep vein thrombosis or septicaemia.Conclusions: Groin injection was common, often due to poor vascular access, but for some it was out of choice. Interventions are required to reduce injecting risk and this practice.",
keywords = "People who inject drugs Femoral vein Risk behaviours Bacterial infections Viral infections",
author = "Hope, {V. D.} and J. Scott and Cullen, {K. J.} and Parry, {J. V.} and F. Ncube and M. Hickman",
year = "2015",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.03.029",
language = "English",
volume = "152",
pages = "239--245",
journal = "Drug and Alcohol Dependence",
issn = "0376-8716",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Going into the groin

T2 - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

AU - Hope,V. D.

AU - Scott,J.

AU - Cullen,K. J.

AU - Parry,J. V.

AU - Ncube,F.

AU - Hickman,M.

PY - 2015/7/1

Y1 - 2015/7/1

N2 - Background: There have been increasing concerns about injection into the femoral vein – groin injecting– among people who inject drugs in a number of countries, though most studies have been small. The extent, reasons and harms associated with groin injecting are examined. Method: Participants were recruited using respondent driven sampling (2006–2009). Weighted data was examined using bivariate analyses and logistic regression. Results: The mean age was 32 years; 25% were women (N = 855). During the preceding 28 days, 94% had injected heroin and 13% shared needles/syringes. Overall, 53% reported ever groin injecting, with 9.8%first doing so at the same age as starting to inject. Common reasons given for groin injecting included: “Can’t get a vein elsewhere” (68%); “It is discreet” (18%); and “It is quicker” (14%). During the preceding28 days, 41% had groin injected, for 77% this was the only body area used (for these “It is discreet” was more frequently given as a reason). In the multivariable analysis, groin injection was associated with: swabbing injection sites; saving filters for reuse; and receiving opiate substitution therapy. It was less common among those injecting into two body areas, and when other people (rather than services) were the main source of needles. Groin injection was more common among those with hepatitis C and reporting ever having deep vein thrombosis or septicaemia.Conclusions: Groin injection was common, often due to poor vascular access, but for some it was out of choice. Interventions are required to reduce injecting risk and this practice.

AB - Background: There have been increasing concerns about injection into the femoral vein – groin injecting– among people who inject drugs in a number of countries, though most studies have been small. The extent, reasons and harms associated with groin injecting are examined. Method: Participants were recruited using respondent driven sampling (2006–2009). Weighted data was examined using bivariate analyses and logistic regression. Results: The mean age was 32 years; 25% were women (N = 855). During the preceding 28 days, 94% had injected heroin and 13% shared needles/syringes. Overall, 53% reported ever groin injecting, with 9.8%first doing so at the same age as starting to inject. Common reasons given for groin injecting included: “Can’t get a vein elsewhere” (68%); “It is discreet” (18%); and “It is quicker” (14%). During the preceding28 days, 41% had groin injected, for 77% this was the only body area used (for these “It is discreet” was more frequently given as a reason). In the multivariable analysis, groin injection was associated with: swabbing injection sites; saving filters for reuse; and receiving opiate substitution therapy. It was less common among those injecting into two body areas, and when other people (rather than services) were the main source of needles. Groin injection was more common among those with hepatitis C and reporting ever having deep vein thrombosis or septicaemia.Conclusions: Groin injection was common, often due to poor vascular access, but for some it was out of choice. Interventions are required to reduce injecting risk and this practice.

KW - People who inject drugs Femoral vein Risk behaviours Bacterial infections Viral infections

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.03.029

U2 - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.03.029

DO - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.03.029

M3 - Article

VL - 152

SP - 239

EP - 245

JO - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

JF - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

SN - 0376-8716

ER -