Albugo-imposed changes to tryptophan-derived antimicrobial metabolite biosynthesis may contribute to suppression of non-host resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Arabidopsis thaliana

David C. Prince, Ghanasyam Rallapalli, Deyang Xu, Henk jan Schoonbeek, Volkan Çevik, Shuta Asai, Eric Kemen, Neftaly Cruz-Mireles, Ariane Kemen, Khaoula Belhaj, Sebastian Schornack, Sophien Kamoun, Eric B. Holub, Barbara A. Halkier, Jonathan D G Jones

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Abstract

Background: Plants are exposed to diverse pathogens and pests, yet most plants are resistant to most plant pathogens. Non-host resistance describes the ability of all members of a plant species to successfully prevent colonization by any given member of a pathogen species. White blister rust caused by Albugo species can overcome non-host resistance and enable secondary infection and reproduction of usually non-virulent pathogens, including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans on Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the molecular basis of host defense suppression in this complex plant-microbe interaction is unclear. Here, we investigate specific defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis that are suppressed by Albugo infection. Results: Gene expression profiling revealed that two species of Albugo upregulate genes associated with tryptophan-derived antimicrobial metabolites in Arabidopsis. Albugo laibachii-infected tissue has altered levels of these metabolites, with lower indol-3-yl methylglucosinolate and higher camalexin accumulation than uninfected tissue. We investigated the contribution of these Albugo-imposed phenotypes to suppression of non-host resistance to P. infestans. Absence of tryptophan-derived antimicrobial compounds enables P. infestans colonization of Arabidopsis, although to a lesser extent than Albugo-infected tissue. A. laibachii also suppresses a subset of genes regulated by salicylic acid; however, salicylic acid plays only a minor role in non-host resistance to P. infestans. Conclusions:Albugo sp. alter tryptophan-derived metabolites and suppress elements of the responses to salicylic acid in Arabidopsis. Albugo sp. imposed alterations in tryptophan-derived metabolites may play a role in Arabidopsis non-host resistance to P. infestans. Understanding the basis of non-host resistance to pathogens such as P. infestans could assist in development of strategies to elevate food security.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20
JournalBMC Biology
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2017

Keywords

  • Albugo
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • Camalexin
  • Glucosinolates
  • Non-host resistance
  • Phytophthora infestans
  • Salicylic acid

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    Prince, D. C., Rallapalli, G., Xu, D., Schoonbeek, H. J., Çevik, V., Asai, S., Kemen, E., Cruz-Mireles, N., Kemen, A., Belhaj, K., Schornack, S., Kamoun, S., Holub, E. B., Halkier, B. A., & Jones, J. D. G. (2017). Albugo-imposed changes to tryptophan-derived antimicrobial metabolite biosynthesis may contribute to suppression of non-host resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Biology, 15(1), [20]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-017-0360-z