The need for wireless condition monitoring and control of hydraulic systems in an autonomous and battery-free manner is attracting increasing attention in an effort to provide improved sensing functionality, monitoring of system health, and to avoid catastrophic failures. The potential to harvest energy from hydraulic pressure ripples and noise is particularly attractive since they inherently have a high energy intensity, which is associated with the hydraulic mean pressure and flow rate. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in hydraulic pressure energy harvesting, which includes the fundamentals of pressure ripples in hydraulic systems, the choice of electroactive materials and device structures, and the influence of the fluid–mechanical interface. In addition, novel approaches for improving the harvested energy and potential applications for the technology are discussed, and future research directions are proposed and outlined.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2103185
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number9
Early online date18 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - 3 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
H.X. would like to thank the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China under International Cooperation and Exchange Programs with Royal Society (grant number 52111530141). M.P. thanks the RAEng/The Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowship, UK (grant number LTSRF1819\15\16), and the RAEng Proof‐of‐Concept Award PoC1920/15.


  • device architectures
  • electroactive materials
  • energy harvesting
  • hydraulic pressure ripples

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)


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