Hybrid additive and subtractive machine tools - research and industrial developments

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By synergistically combining additive and subtractive processes within a single workstation, the relative merits of each process may be harnessed. This facilitates the manufacture of internal, overhanging and high aspect ratio features with desirable geometric accuracy and surface characteristics. The ability to work, measure and then rework material enables the reincarnation and repair of damaged, high-value components. These techniques present significant opportunities to improve material utilisation, part complexity and quality management in functional parts.

The number of single platform workstations for hybrid additive and subtractive processes (WHASPs) is increasing. Many of these integrate additive directed energy deposition (DED) with subtractive CNC machining within a highly mobile multi-axis machine tool. Advanced numerical control (NC), and computer aided design (CAD), manufacture (CAM) and inspection (CAI) help to govern the process.

This research reviews and critically discusses salient published literature relating to the development of WHASPs, and identifies future avenues for research and development. It reports on state-of-the-art WHASP systems, identifying key traits and research gaps. Finally, a future vision for WHASPs and other hybrid machine tools is presented based upon emerging trends and future opportunities within this research area
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-101
JournalInternational Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management (IJMTM)
Early online date22 Nov 2015
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2016


  • Hybrid manufacturing processes; Machine tool design; Additive; Subtractive manufacturing


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