Human-to-human closed-loop control based on brain-to-brain interface and muscle-to-muscle interface

M. Ebrahim M. Mashat, Guangye Li, Dingguo Zhang

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22 Citations (SciVal)


Novel communication techniques have always been fascinating for humankind. This pilot study presents an approach to human interaction by combining direct brain-to-brain interface (BBI) and muscle-to-muscle interface (MMI) in a closed-loop pattern. In this system, artificial paths (data flows) functionally connect natural paths (nerves). The intention from one subject (sender) is recognized using electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI), which is sent out to trigger transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the other subject (receiver) and induce hand motion; meanwhile TMS results in a significant change on the motor evoked potentials (MEP) recorded by electromyography (EMG) of the receiver's arm, which triggers functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the sender's arm and generates hand motion. Human-controlled loop and automatic control loop experiments were performed with 6 pairs of healthy subjects to evaluate the performance of the introduced mechanism. The results indicated that response accuracy during human-controlled experiments was 85% which demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed method. During the automatic control test, two subjects could accomplish repetitive and reciprocal hand motion control up to 85 times consecutively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11001
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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