How to Evaluate Object Selection and Manipulation in VR? Guidelines from 20 Years of Studies

Joanna Bergström, Tor-salve Dalsgaard, Jason Alexander, Kasper Hornbæk

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter in a published conference proceeding

31 Citations (SciVal)
521 Downloads (Pure)


The VR community has introduced many object selection and manipulation techniques during the past two decades. Typically, they are empirically studied to establish their benefts over the state-of-the-art. However, the literature contains few guidelines on how to conduct such studies; standards developed for evaluating 2D interaction often do not apply. This lack of guidelines makes it hard to compare techniques across studies, to report evaluations consistently, and therefore to accumulate or replicate fndings. To build such guidelines, we review 20 years of studies on VR object selection and manipulation. Based on the review, we propose recommendations for designing studies and a checklist for reporting them.We also identify research directions for improving evaluation methods and ofer ideas for how to make studies more ecologically valid and rigorous.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCHI 2021 - Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Subtitle of host publicationMaking Waves, Combining Strengths
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages20
VolumeMay 2021
ISBN (Electronic)9781450380966
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2021

Publication series

NameConference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings


  • Experiments
  • Object selection and manipulation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Software

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