Highly electron transparent Graphene for field emission triode gates

Matthew Cole, Chi Li, Wei Lei, Ke Qu, Kai Ying, Yan Zhang, Alex R. Robertson, Jamie H. Warner, Shuyi Ding, Xiaobing Zhang, Baoping Wang, William I. Milne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (SciVal)


The enhanced emission performance of a graphene/Mo hybrid gate electrode integrated into a nanocarbon field emission micro-triode electron source is presented. Highly electron transparent gate electrodes are fabricated from chemical vapor deposited bilayer graphene transferred to Mo grids with experimental and simulated data, showing that liberated electrons efficiently traverse multi-layer graphene membranes with transparencies in excess of 50-68%. The graphene hybrid gates are shown to reduce the gate driving voltage by 1.1 kV, whilst increasing the electron transmission efficiency of the gate electrode significantly. Integrated intensity maps show that the electron beam angular dispersion is dramatically improved (87.9°) coupled with a 63% reduction in beam diameter. Impressive temporal stability is noted (<1.0%) with surprising negligible long-term damage to the graphene. A 34% increase in triode perveance and an amplification factor 7.6 times that of conventional refractory metal grid gate electrode-based triodes are noted, thus demonstrating the excellent stability and suitability of graphene gates in micro-triode electron sources. A nanocarbon field emission triode with a hybrid gate electrode is developed. The graphene/Mo gate shows a high electron transparency (50-68%) which results in a reduced turn-on potential, increased beam collimation, reduced beam diameter (63%), enhanced stability (<1% variation), a 34% increase in perveance, and an amplification 7.6 times that of equivalent conventional refractory metal gate triodes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1218-1227
Number of pages10
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2014


  • chemical vapor deposition
  • electron transmission
  • field emission
  • graphene
  • triode gate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrochemistry


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