High precision in-situ measurement of speed of sound in hydraulic systems

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Abstract

An existing ISO standard frequency-domain method for measurement of speed of sound in a hydraulic pipeline is enhanced and extended in this paper to include in-situ measurement of pressure transducer calibration factors. Transducer mounting stresses are shown to cause variations in the calibration factors, and the proposed method can be used to eliminate these uncertainties, consequently improving the accuracy of the speed of sound. 95% confidence ranges in the speed of sound of less than +/-0.1% have been achieved, and such high precision cannot be achieved by other practical methods. The method can also been extended to estimate viscosity and mean flow velocity, but accuracy is less good.
Novel time-domain versions of the method are introduced. These may be valuable for real-time monitoring, and changes in speed of sound or calibration factor can be tracked with minimal delay. Some examples showing the effect of sudden aeration are presented; a sudden drop in speed of sound is apparent.
Original languageEnglish
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering
Early online date21 Jul 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 Jul 2019

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Acoustic wave velocity
Hydraulics
Calibration
Frequency standards
Pressure transducers
Mountings
Flow velocity
Transducers
Pipelines
Viscosity
Monitoring

Cite this

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title = "High precision in-situ measurement of speed of sound in hydraulic systems",
abstract = "An existing ISO standard frequency-domain method for measurement of speed of sound in a hydraulic pipeline is enhanced and extended in this paper to include in-situ measurement of pressure transducer calibration factors. Transducer mounting stresses are shown to cause variations in the calibration factors, and the proposed method can be used to eliminate these uncertainties, consequently improving the accuracy of the speed of sound. 95{\%} confidence ranges in the speed of sound of less than +/-0.1{\%} have been achieved, and such high precision cannot be achieved by other practical methods. The method can also been extended to estimate viscosity and mean flow velocity, but accuracy is less good.Novel time-domain versions of the method are introduced. These may be valuable for real-time monitoring, and changes in speed of sound or calibration factor can be tracked with minimal delay. Some examples showing the effect of sudden aeration are presented; a sudden drop in speed of sound is apparent.",
author = "David Johnston",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1177/0959651819862719",
language = "English",
journal = "Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering",
issn = "0959-6518",
publisher = "Sage Publications",

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AU - Johnston, David

PY - 2019/7/21

Y1 - 2019/7/21

N2 - An existing ISO standard frequency-domain method for measurement of speed of sound in a hydraulic pipeline is enhanced and extended in this paper to include in-situ measurement of pressure transducer calibration factors. Transducer mounting stresses are shown to cause variations in the calibration factors, and the proposed method can be used to eliminate these uncertainties, consequently improving the accuracy of the speed of sound. 95% confidence ranges in the speed of sound of less than +/-0.1% have been achieved, and such high precision cannot be achieved by other practical methods. The method can also been extended to estimate viscosity and mean flow velocity, but accuracy is less good.Novel time-domain versions of the method are introduced. These may be valuable for real-time monitoring, and changes in speed of sound or calibration factor can be tracked with minimal delay. Some examples showing the effect of sudden aeration are presented; a sudden drop in speed of sound is apparent.

AB - An existing ISO standard frequency-domain method for measurement of speed of sound in a hydraulic pipeline is enhanced and extended in this paper to include in-situ measurement of pressure transducer calibration factors. Transducer mounting stresses are shown to cause variations in the calibration factors, and the proposed method can be used to eliminate these uncertainties, consequently improving the accuracy of the speed of sound. 95% confidence ranges in the speed of sound of less than +/-0.1% have been achieved, and such high precision cannot be achieved by other practical methods. The method can also been extended to estimate viscosity and mean flow velocity, but accuracy is less good.Novel time-domain versions of the method are introduced. These may be valuable for real-time monitoring, and changes in speed of sound or calibration factor can be tracked with minimal delay. Some examples showing the effect of sudden aeration are presented; a sudden drop in speed of sound is apparent.

U2 - 10.1177/0959651819862719

DO - 10.1177/0959651819862719

M3 - Article

JO - Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering

JF - Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering

SN - 0959-6518

ER -