Positive ionospheric anomalies induced in the polar cap region by co-rotating interaction region (CIR)- and coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven geomagnetic storms are analysed using four-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of the ionospheric plasma density based on measurements of the total electron content along ray paths of GPS signals. The results of GPS tomography are compared with ground-based observations of F region plasma density by digital ionosondes located in the Canadian Arctic. It is demonstrated that CIR- and CME-driven storms can produce large-scale polar cap anomalies of similar morphology in the form of the tongue of ionization (TOI) that appears on the poleward edge of the mid-latitude dayside storm-enhanced densities in positive ionospheric storms. The CIR-driven event of 14-16 October 2002 was able to produce ionospheric anomalies (TOI) comparable to those produced by the CME-driven storms of greater Dst magnitude. From the comparison of tomographic reconstructions and ionosonde data with solar wind measurements, it appears that the formation of large-scale polar cap anomalies is controlled by the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with the TOI forming during the periods of extended southward IMF under conditions of high solar wind velocity.
|Number of pages||18|
|Journal||Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A - Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2010|
- GPS tomography
- geomagnetic storms