To date, a number of studies have reported the use of vibrations coupled to ferroelectric materials for water splitting. However, producing a stable particle suspension for high efficiency and long-term stability remains a challenge. Here, the first report of the production of a nanofluidic BaTiO3 suspension containing a mixture of cubic and tetragonal phases that splits water under ultrasound is provided. The BaTiO3 particle size reduces from approximately 400 nm to approximately 150 nm during the application of ultrasound and the fine-scale nature of the particulates leads to the formation of a stable nanofluid consisting of BaTiO3 particles suspended as a nanofluid. Long-term testing demonstrates repeatable H2 evolution over 4 days with a continuous 24 h period of stable catalysis. A maximum rate of H2 evolution is found to be 270 mmol h–1 g–1 for a loading of 5 mg l–1 of BaTiO3 in 10% MeOH/H2O. This work indicates the potential of harnessing vibrations for water splitting in functional materials and is the first demonstration of exploiting a ferroelectric nanofluid for stable water splitting, which leads to the highest efficiency of piezoelectrically driven water splitting reported to date.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2105248
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number9
Early online date27 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Y.Z., and N.P.H.D. contributed equally to this work. This research is funded by Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number 104.05‐2019.344, the Academy of Medical Sciences GCRF fund (GCRFNGR2‐10059), The Leverhulme Trust (RGP‐2018‐290), Key Research and Development Project of Hunan Province in China (No. 2020WK2004), Hundred Youth Talents Program of Hunan, State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, and Overseas Talent Introduction Project of China for their support.


  • ferroelectric
  • piezocatalysis
  • piezoelectric
  • sonochemistry
  • ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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