Heteroallene Insertions into Tin(II) Alkoxide Bonds

Aidan T. Ryan, Andrew Brookes, Andrew Straiton, Thomas Wildsmith, John P. Lowe, Kieran C. Molloy, Michael S. Hill, Andrew L. Johnson

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A series of iso-carbamate complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of [SnII(OiPr)2] or [SnII(OtBu)2] with either aryl or alkyl isocyanates, ONC-R (R = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl (Mes), 2,6-diisopropylphenyl (Dipp), isopropyl (iPr), cyclohexyl (Cy) and tert-butyl (tBu)). In the case of aryl isocyanates, mono-insertion occurs to form structurally characterized complexes [Sn{κ2-N,O-R-NC(OiPr)O}(μ-OiPr)]2 (1: R = Mes, 2: R = Dipp) and [Sn{κ2-N,O-R-NC(OtBu)O}(μ-OtBu)]2 (3: R = Mes, 4: R = Dipp). The complicated solution-state chemistry of these species has been explored using 1H DOSY experiments. In contrast, reactions of tin(II) alkoxides with alkyl isocyanates result in the formation of bis-insertion products [Sn{κ2-N,O-R-NC(OiPr)O}2] (5: R = iPr, and 6: R = Cy) and [Sn{κ2-N,O-R-NC(OtBu)O}2] (7: R = iPr, 8: R = Cy), of which complexes 6–8 have also been structurally characterized. 1H NMR studies show that the reaction of tBu-NCO with either [Sn(OiPr)2] or [Sn(OtBu)2] results in a reversible mono-insertion. Variable-temperature 2D 1H–1H exchange spectroscopy (VT-2D-EXSY) was used to determine the rate of exchange between free tBu-NCO and the coordinated tBu-iso-carbamate ligand for the {OiPr} alkoxide complex, as well as the activation energy (Ea = 92.2 ± 0.8 kJ mol–1), enthalpy (ΔH‡ = 89.4 ± 0.8 kJ mol–1), and entropy (ΔS‡ = 12.6 ± 2.9 J mol–1 K–1) for the process [Sn(OiPr)2] + tBu-NCO ↔ [Sn{κ2-N,O-tBu-NC(OiPr)O}(OiPr)]. Attempts to form Sn(II) alkyl carbonates by the insertion of CO2 into either [Sn(OiPr)2] or [Sn(OtBu)2] proved unsuccessful. However, 119Sn{1H} NMR spectroscopy of the reaction of excess CO2 with [Sn(OiPr)2] reveals the presence of a new Sn(II) species, i.e., [(iPrO)Sn(O2COiPr)], VT-2D-EXSY (1H) of which confirms the reversible alkyl carbonate formation (Ea = 70.3 ± 13.0 kJ mol–1; ΔH‡ = 68.0 ± 1.3 kJ mol–1 and ΔS‡ = −8.07 ± 2.8 J mol–1 K–1).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10967-10979
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Issue number24
Early online date4 Jun 2024
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jun 2024

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