Heat-assisted extraction of phenolic-rich bioactive antioxidants from Enantia chlorantha stem bark: multi-objective optimization, integrated process techno-economics and profitability risk assessment

Oladayo Adeyi, Abiola J. Adeyi, Emmanuel O. Oke, Bernard I. Okolo, Olusegun A. Olalere, Abiola E. Taiwo, Oluwole S. Aremu, Tozama Qwebani-Ogunleye, Yvonne Maphosa, Akinola D. Ogunsola

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Abstract

This present study investigates the heat-assisted extraction (HAE) of bioactive antioxidants from Enantia chlorantha stem bark (ECSB). The effects of process parameters of operating temperature (OT: 35–55 °C), extraction time (ET: 100–200 min) and solid: liquid ratio (S/L: 1:20–1:50 g/mL) are determined on the total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA) and extract yield (EY) using the D-Optimal design. Multi-criteria optimization is also conducted to determine the HAE optimum conditions. The integrated process for E. chlorantha stem bark extracts (ECBEs) production is thereafter designed with the optimum HAE conditions and techno-economically analysed. Three industrial ECBEs production setups (5, 100 and 1000 L extractor capacities) are analysed for probable scale-up and the risk & sensitivity analyses are conducted via Monte Carlo simulation. The HAE parameters affect the extraction process significantly. The OT, ET and S/L that maximize the TPC, AA and EY simultaneously are: OT = 54.10 °C, ET = 120.16 min and S/L = 1:50 g/mL. The 1000 L plant extractor setup is the most economical capacity having the least unit production cost (UPC) of 763.52 US$/kg ECBEs. The certainty of achieving 763.52 US$/kg ECBEs for the 1000 L capacity is 55.43% and the only variable with negative contribution (− 37.9%) on ECBEs UPC is the extract recovery variable.

Original languageEnglish
Article number153
JournalSN Applied Sciences
Volume5
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding
This present research received no grant either in the public, commercial or not-for-profit funding agencies.

Data availability
The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Keywords

  • Economic analyses
  • Enantia chlorantha stem bark
  • Heat-assisted extraction
  • Integrated process
  • Process risk analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

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