Heart rate variability threshold values for early-warning nonfunctional overreaching in elite female wrestlers

Ye Tian, Zi-Hong He, Jie-Xiu Zhao, Da-Lang Tao, Kui-Yun Xu, Conrad P. Earnest, Lars R. McNaughton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Functional overreaching (FOR) represents intense training followed by a brief reduction in performance and then a rapid recovery (<2 weeks) and performance supercompensation. Nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) occurs when the reduced performance continues >=3 weeks. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising tool for detecting NFOR. In this study, the authors examined HRV thresholds in 34 elite female wrestlers (mean ± SD: age 23 ± 3 years; height 165.6 ± 6 cm, weight 63 ± 8 kg) for FOR/NFOR during training before 11 major competitions. Supine HRV was analyzed weekly at the same time of day using time and frequency domain methods. The authors observed that the time domain index, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent R-to-R intervals (rMSSD, milliseconds), denoting parasympathetic tone, showed those responding normally to training (82.76 ms, 95% confidence interval 77.75–87.78) to be significantly different to those showing a decrease (45.97 ms, 95% confidence interval, 30.79–61.14) or hyper-responsiveness (160.44 ms, 95% confidence interval, 142.02–178.85; all, p < 0.001). Similar results were observed for mixed sympathetic and parasympathetic signal standard deviation of the NN intervals (ms): normal (65.39; 95% confidence interval, 62.49–68.29), decrease (40.07; 95% confidence interval, 29–51.14), and hyperresponse (115.00; 95% confidence interval, 105.46–124.54; all, p < 0.001) and synonymous frequency domain components. An examination of the 95% confidence interval shows a narrow band surrounding a normal response compared with broader bands accompanying adverse responses. Thus, severe perturbations both above and below normal responses lasting >2 weeks indicated an athlete’s transition to NFOR and, hence, are useful for assessing possible overreaching/training.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1511-1519
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Volume27
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

Fingerprint

Heart Rate
Confidence Intervals
Athletes
Weights and Measures

Cite this

Heart rate variability threshold values for early-warning nonfunctional overreaching in elite female wrestlers. / Tian, Ye; He, Zi-Hong; Zhao, Jie-Xiu; Tao, Da-Lang; Xu, Kui-Yun; Earnest, Conrad P.; McNaughton, Lars R.

In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Vol. 27, No. 6, 06.2013, p. 1511-1519.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tian, Ye ; He, Zi-Hong ; Zhao, Jie-Xiu ; Tao, Da-Lang ; Xu, Kui-Yun ; Earnest, Conrad P. ; McNaughton, Lars R. / Heart rate variability threshold values for early-warning nonfunctional overreaching in elite female wrestlers. In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2013 ; Vol. 27, No. 6. pp. 1511-1519.
@article{aee74ca988204527a2d0bc79a428700d,
title = "Heart rate variability threshold values for early-warning nonfunctional overreaching in elite female wrestlers",
abstract = "Functional overreaching (FOR) represents intense training followed by a brief reduction in performance and then a rapid recovery (<2 weeks) and performance supercompensation. Nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) occurs when the reduced performance continues >=3 weeks. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising tool for detecting NFOR. In this study, the authors examined HRV thresholds in 34 elite female wrestlers (mean ± SD: age 23 ± 3 years; height 165.6 ± 6 cm, weight 63 ± 8 kg) for FOR/NFOR during training before 11 major competitions. Supine HRV was analyzed weekly at the same time of day using time and frequency domain methods. The authors observed that the time domain index, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent R-to-R intervals (rMSSD, milliseconds), denoting parasympathetic tone, showed those responding normally to training (82.76 ms, 95{\%} confidence interval 77.75–87.78) to be significantly different to those showing a decrease (45.97 ms, 95{\%} confidence interval, 30.79–61.14) or hyper-responsiveness (160.44 ms, 95{\%} confidence interval, 142.02–178.85; all, p < 0.001). Similar results were observed for mixed sympathetic and parasympathetic signal standard deviation of the NN intervals (ms): normal (65.39; 95{\%} confidence interval, 62.49–68.29), decrease (40.07; 95{\%} confidence interval, 29–51.14), and hyperresponse (115.00; 95{\%} confidence interval, 105.46–124.54; all, p < 0.001) and synonymous frequency domain components. An examination of the 95{\%} confidence interval shows a narrow band surrounding a normal response compared with broader bands accompanying adverse responses. Thus, severe perturbations both above and below normal responses lasting >2 weeks indicated an athlete’s transition to NFOR and, hence, are useful for assessing possible overreaching/training.",
author = "Ye Tian and Zi-Hong He and Jie-Xiu Zhao and Da-Lang Tao and Kui-Yun Xu and Earnest, {Conrad P.} and McNaughton, {Lars R.}",
year = "2013",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1519/JSC.0b013e31826caef8",
language = "English",
volume = "27",
pages = "1511--1519",
journal = "Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research",
issn = "1064-8011",
publisher = "NSCA National Strength and Conditioning Association",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Heart rate variability threshold values for early-warning nonfunctional overreaching in elite female wrestlers

AU - Tian, Ye

AU - He, Zi-Hong

AU - Zhao, Jie-Xiu

AU - Tao, Da-Lang

AU - Xu, Kui-Yun

AU - Earnest, Conrad P.

AU - McNaughton, Lars R.

PY - 2013/6

Y1 - 2013/6

N2 - Functional overreaching (FOR) represents intense training followed by a brief reduction in performance and then a rapid recovery (<2 weeks) and performance supercompensation. Nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) occurs when the reduced performance continues >=3 weeks. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising tool for detecting NFOR. In this study, the authors examined HRV thresholds in 34 elite female wrestlers (mean ± SD: age 23 ± 3 years; height 165.6 ± 6 cm, weight 63 ± 8 kg) for FOR/NFOR during training before 11 major competitions. Supine HRV was analyzed weekly at the same time of day using time and frequency domain methods. The authors observed that the time domain index, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent R-to-R intervals (rMSSD, milliseconds), denoting parasympathetic tone, showed those responding normally to training (82.76 ms, 95% confidence interval 77.75–87.78) to be significantly different to those showing a decrease (45.97 ms, 95% confidence interval, 30.79–61.14) or hyper-responsiveness (160.44 ms, 95% confidence interval, 142.02–178.85; all, p < 0.001). Similar results were observed for mixed sympathetic and parasympathetic signal standard deviation of the NN intervals (ms): normal (65.39; 95% confidence interval, 62.49–68.29), decrease (40.07; 95% confidence interval, 29–51.14), and hyperresponse (115.00; 95% confidence interval, 105.46–124.54; all, p < 0.001) and synonymous frequency domain components. An examination of the 95% confidence interval shows a narrow band surrounding a normal response compared with broader bands accompanying adverse responses. Thus, severe perturbations both above and below normal responses lasting >2 weeks indicated an athlete’s transition to NFOR and, hence, are useful for assessing possible overreaching/training.

AB - Functional overreaching (FOR) represents intense training followed by a brief reduction in performance and then a rapid recovery (<2 weeks) and performance supercompensation. Nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) occurs when the reduced performance continues >=3 weeks. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising tool for detecting NFOR. In this study, the authors examined HRV thresholds in 34 elite female wrestlers (mean ± SD: age 23 ± 3 years; height 165.6 ± 6 cm, weight 63 ± 8 kg) for FOR/NFOR during training before 11 major competitions. Supine HRV was analyzed weekly at the same time of day using time and frequency domain methods. The authors observed that the time domain index, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent R-to-R intervals (rMSSD, milliseconds), denoting parasympathetic tone, showed those responding normally to training (82.76 ms, 95% confidence interval 77.75–87.78) to be significantly different to those showing a decrease (45.97 ms, 95% confidence interval, 30.79–61.14) or hyper-responsiveness (160.44 ms, 95% confidence interval, 142.02–178.85; all, p < 0.001). Similar results were observed for mixed sympathetic and parasympathetic signal standard deviation of the NN intervals (ms): normal (65.39; 95% confidence interval, 62.49–68.29), decrease (40.07; 95% confidence interval, 29–51.14), and hyperresponse (115.00; 95% confidence interval, 105.46–124.54; all, p < 0.001) and synonymous frequency domain components. An examination of the 95% confidence interval shows a narrow band surrounding a normal response compared with broader bands accompanying adverse responses. Thus, severe perturbations both above and below normal responses lasting >2 weeks indicated an athlete’s transition to NFOR and, hence, are useful for assessing possible overreaching/training.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84878960302&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31826caef8

U2 - 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31826caef8

DO - 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31826caef8

M3 - Article

VL - 27

SP - 1511

EP - 1519

JO - Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

JF - Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

SN - 1064-8011

IS - 6

ER -