Hard Lessons: Effort-Inducing Interfaces Benefit Spatial Learning

Andy Cockburn, Per Ola Kristensson, Jason Alexander, Shumin Zhai

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter in a published conference proceeding

46 Citations (SciVal)
36 Downloads (Pure)


Interface designers normally strive for a design that minimises the user’s effort. However, when the design’s objective is to train users to interact with interfaces that are highly dependent on spatial properties (e.g. keypad layout or gesture shapes) we contend that designers should consider explicitly increasing the mental effort of interaction. To test the hypothesis that effort aids spatial memory, we designed a “frost-brushing” interface that forces the user to mentally retrieve spatial information, or to physically brush away the frost to obtain visual guidance. We report results from two experiments using virtual keypad interfaces – the first concerns spatial location learning of buttons on the keypad, and the second concerns both location and trajectory learning of gesture shape. The results support our hypothesis, showing that the frost-brushing design improved spatial learning. The participants’ subjective responses emphasised the connections between effort, engagement, boredom, frustration, and enjoyment, suggesting that effort requires careful parameterisation to maximise its effectiveness.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)978-1-59593-593-9
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2007

Publication series

NameCHI '07


  • Skill acquisition
  • education
  • training
  • gesture stroke
  • pen input
  • text entry
  • spatial memory
  • learning


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