Guilt, sympathy, and cooperation: EU-Baltic relations in the early 1990s

A. Lasas

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4 Citations (SciVal)


The period between March 1990 and June 1993 represents the critical window for European Union (EU)-Baltic relations. During this time Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania laid the foundation for future EU membership. For its part, the European community made a commitment to include the three republics in the process of enlargement. This paper traces the beginnings of EU-Baltic cooperation and examines factors that led to growing political and economic convergence. Nordic membership in the EU, ex-Soviet troop withdrawal, and Russian parliamentary elections were instrumental in bringing both sides together on the road to enlargement, but collective guilt provided the underlying rationale. In this paper, the author argues that it is impossible to understand fully this process of convergence without taking into account the connotations and consequences of the "black trinity": the Munich, pact, the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, and the Yalta, agreement.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-372
Number of pages26
JournalEast European Politics and Societies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2008


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