Greenhouse gas reporting for biofuels: A comparison between the RED, RTFO and PAS2050 methodologies

Carly Whittaker, Marcelle C McManus, Geoffrey P Hammond

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (SciVal)
266 Downloads (Pure)


Biofuels have been identified as a potential short-term solution for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from road transport. Currently, '1st generation' biofuels are produced from food crops, but there are concerns with the indirect effects of utilising edible crops for fuel. There is increased interest in producing '2nd generation' biofuels from woody crops and straw, as these can be grown on lower grade land or do not compete directly with food. In order to ensure that biofuels actually deliver emission savings, the overall GHG balance of producing them must be calculated accurately, and compared with conventional fossil fuels. The GHG balance can vary significantly however, depending on biomass type, the production processes, the indirect effects, and also by the method by which the GHG emission balance is calculated. Currently, in the UK, there are three main GHG methodologies that potentially affect biofuel producers. Each has a different approach to measure GHG emissions from biofuel production, and each provides a different result, causing difficulties for policy makers. This study performs a partial life cycle assessment for bioethanol production from wheat grain and wheat straw to demonstrate the variability of the results between methodologies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5950-5960
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy Policy
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011


Dive into the research topics of 'Greenhouse gas reporting for biofuels: A comparison between the RED, RTFO and PAS2050 methodologies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this