GRB 061121

Broadband spectral evolution through the prompt and afterglow phases of a bright burst

K. L. Page, R. Willingale, J. P. Osborne, B. Zhang, O. Godet, F. E. Marshall, A. Melandri, J. P. Norris, P. T. O'Brien, V. Pal'shin, E. Rol, P. Romano, R. L.C. Starling, P. Schady, S. A. Yost, S. D. Barthelmy, A. P. Beardmore, G. Cusumano, D. N. Burrows, M. De Pasquale & 16 others M. Ehle, P. A. Evans, N. Gehrels, M. R. Goad, S. Golenetskii, C. Guidorzi, C. Mundell, M. J. Page, G. Ricker, T. Sakamoto, B. E. Schaefer, M. Stamatikos, E. Troja, M. Ulanov, F. Yuan, H. Ziaeepour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

99 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Swift triggered on a precursor to the main burst of GRB 061121 (z = 1.314), allowing observations to be made from the optical to gamma-ray bands. Many other telescopes, including Konus-Wind, XMM-Newton, ROTSE, and the Faulkes Telescope North, also observed the burst. The gamma-ray, X-ray, and UV/optical emission all showed a peak ∼75 s after the trigger, although the optical and X-ray afterglow components also appear early on, before or during the main peak. Spectral evolution was seen throughout the burst, with the prompt emission showing a clear positive correlation between brightness and hardness. The SED of the prompt emission, stretching from 1 eV up to 1 MeV, is very flat, with a peak in the flux density at ∼1 keV. The optical to X-ray spectra at this time are better fitted by a broken, rather than single, power law, similar to previous results for X-ray flares. The SED shows spectral hardening as the afterglow evolves with time. This behavior might be a symptom of self-Comptonization, although circumstellar densities similar to those found in the cores of molecular clouds would be required. The afterglow also decays too slowly to be accounted for by the standard models. Although the precursor and main emission show different spectral lags, both are consistent with the lag-luminosity correlation for long bursts. GRB 061121 is the instantaneously brightest long burst yet detected by Swift. Using a combination of Swift and Konus-Wind data, we estimate an isotropic energy of 2.8 × 1053 ergs over 1 keV - 10 MeV in the GRB rest frame. A probable jet break is detected at ∼2 × 105 s, leading to an estimate of ∼10 51 ergs for the beaming-corrected gamma-ray energy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1125-1138
Number of pages14
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume663
Issue number2 I
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jul 2007

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afterglows
bursts
broadband
erg
gamma rays
x rays
time lag
telescopes
hardening
hardness
energy
XMM-Newton telescope
estimates
power law
molecular clouds
newton
flares
light emission
brightness
flux density

Keywords

  • Gamma Rays: Bursts, X-rays: individual (GRB 061121), Astrophysics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Page, K. L., Willingale, R., Osborne, J. P., Zhang, B., Godet, O., Marshall, F. E., ... Ziaeepour, H. (2007). GRB 061121: Broadband spectral evolution through the prompt and afterglow phases of a bright burst. Astrophysical Journal, 663(2 I), 1125-1138. https://doi.org/10.1086/518821

GRB 061121 : Broadband spectral evolution through the prompt and afterglow phases of a bright burst. / Page, K. L.; Willingale, R.; Osborne, J. P.; Zhang, B.; Godet, O.; Marshall, F. E.; Melandri, A.; Norris, J. P.; O'Brien, P. T.; Pal'shin, V.; Rol, E.; Romano, P.; Starling, R. L.C.; Schady, P.; Yost, S. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Beardmore, A. P.; Cusumano, G.; Burrows, D. N.; De Pasquale, M.; Ehle, M.; Evans, P. A.; Gehrels, N.; Goad, M. R.; Golenetskii, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Mundell, C.; Page, M. J.; Ricker, G.; Sakamoto, T.; Schaefer, B. E.; Stamatikos, M.; Troja, E.; Ulanov, M.; Yuan, F.; Ziaeepour, H.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 663, No. 2 I, 10.07.2007, p. 1125-1138.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Page, KL, Willingale, R, Osborne, JP, Zhang, B, Godet, O, Marshall, FE, Melandri, A, Norris, JP, O'Brien, PT, Pal'shin, V, Rol, E, Romano, P, Starling, RLC, Schady, P, Yost, SA, Barthelmy, SD, Beardmore, AP, Cusumano, G, Burrows, DN, De Pasquale, M, Ehle, M, Evans, PA, Gehrels, N, Goad, MR, Golenetskii, S, Guidorzi, C, Mundell, C, Page, MJ, Ricker, G, Sakamoto, T, Schaefer, BE, Stamatikos, M, Troja, E, Ulanov, M, Yuan, F & Ziaeepour, H 2007, 'GRB 061121: Broadband spectral evolution through the prompt and afterglow phases of a bright burst', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 663, no. 2 I, pp. 1125-1138. https://doi.org/10.1086/518821
Page KL, Willingale R, Osborne JP, Zhang B, Godet O, Marshall FE et al. GRB 061121: Broadband spectral evolution through the prompt and afterglow phases of a bright burst. Astrophysical Journal. 2007 Jul 10;663(2 I):1125-1138. https://doi.org/10.1086/518821
Page, K. L. ; Willingale, R. ; Osborne, J. P. ; Zhang, B. ; Godet, O. ; Marshall, F. E. ; Melandri, A. ; Norris, J. P. ; O'Brien, P. T. ; Pal'shin, V. ; Rol, E. ; Romano, P. ; Starling, R. L.C. ; Schady, P. ; Yost, S. A. ; Barthelmy, S. D. ; Beardmore, A. P. ; Cusumano, G. ; Burrows, D. N. ; De Pasquale, M. ; Ehle, M. ; Evans, P. A. ; Gehrels, N. ; Goad, M. R. ; Golenetskii, S. ; Guidorzi, C. ; Mundell, C. ; Page, M. J. ; Ricker, G. ; Sakamoto, T. ; Schaefer, B. E. ; Stamatikos, M. ; Troja, E. ; Ulanov, M. ; Yuan, F. ; Ziaeepour, H. / GRB 061121 : Broadband spectral evolution through the prompt and afterglow phases of a bright burst. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2007 ; Vol. 663, No. 2 I. pp. 1125-1138.
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abstract = "Swift triggered on a precursor to the main burst of GRB 061121 (z = 1.314), allowing observations to be made from the optical to gamma-ray bands. Many other telescopes, including Konus-Wind, XMM-Newton, ROTSE, and the Faulkes Telescope North, also observed the burst. The gamma-ray, X-ray, and UV/optical emission all showed a peak ∼75 s after the trigger, although the optical and X-ray afterglow components also appear early on, before or during the main peak. Spectral evolution was seen throughout the burst, with the prompt emission showing a clear positive correlation between brightness and hardness. The SED of the prompt emission, stretching from 1 eV up to 1 MeV, is very flat, with a peak in the flux density at ∼1 keV. The optical to X-ray spectra at this time are better fitted by a broken, rather than single, power law, similar to previous results for X-ray flares. The SED shows spectral hardening as the afterglow evolves with time. This behavior might be a symptom of self-Comptonization, although circumstellar densities similar to those found in the cores of molecular clouds would be required. The afterglow also decays too slowly to be accounted for by the standard models. Although the precursor and main emission show different spectral lags, both are consistent with the lag-luminosity correlation for long bursts. GRB 061121 is the instantaneously brightest long burst yet detected by Swift. Using a combination of Swift and Konus-Wind data, we estimate an isotropic energy of 2.8 × 1053 ergs over 1 keV - 10 MeV in the GRB rest frame. A probable jet break is detected at ∼2 × 105 s, leading to an estimate of ∼10 51 ergs for the beaming-corrected gamma-ray energy.",
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T2 - Broadband spectral evolution through the prompt and afterglow phases of a bright burst

AU - Page, K. L.

AU - Willingale, R.

AU - Osborne, J. P.

AU - Zhang, B.

AU - Godet, O.

AU - Marshall, F. E.

AU - Melandri, A.

AU - Norris, J. P.

AU - O'Brien, P. T.

AU - Pal'shin, V.

AU - Rol, E.

AU - Romano, P.

AU - Starling, R. L.C.

AU - Schady, P.

AU - Yost, S. A.

AU - Barthelmy, S. D.

AU - Beardmore, A. P.

AU - Cusumano, G.

AU - Burrows, D. N.

AU - De Pasquale, M.

AU - Ehle, M.

AU - Evans, P. A.

AU - Gehrels, N.

AU - Goad, M. R.

AU - Golenetskii, S.

AU - Guidorzi, C.

AU - Mundell, C.

AU - Page, M. J.

AU - Ricker, G.

AU - Sakamoto, T.

AU - Schaefer, B. E.

AU - Stamatikos, M.

AU - Troja, E.

AU - Ulanov, M.

AU - Yuan, F.

AU - Ziaeepour, H.

PY - 2007/7/10

Y1 - 2007/7/10

N2 - Swift triggered on a precursor to the main burst of GRB 061121 (z = 1.314), allowing observations to be made from the optical to gamma-ray bands. Many other telescopes, including Konus-Wind, XMM-Newton, ROTSE, and the Faulkes Telescope North, also observed the burst. The gamma-ray, X-ray, and UV/optical emission all showed a peak ∼75 s after the trigger, although the optical and X-ray afterglow components also appear early on, before or during the main peak. Spectral evolution was seen throughout the burst, with the prompt emission showing a clear positive correlation between brightness and hardness. The SED of the prompt emission, stretching from 1 eV up to 1 MeV, is very flat, with a peak in the flux density at ∼1 keV. The optical to X-ray spectra at this time are better fitted by a broken, rather than single, power law, similar to previous results for X-ray flares. The SED shows spectral hardening as the afterglow evolves with time. This behavior might be a symptom of self-Comptonization, although circumstellar densities similar to those found in the cores of molecular clouds would be required. The afterglow also decays too slowly to be accounted for by the standard models. Although the precursor and main emission show different spectral lags, both are consistent with the lag-luminosity correlation for long bursts. GRB 061121 is the instantaneously brightest long burst yet detected by Swift. Using a combination of Swift and Konus-Wind data, we estimate an isotropic energy of 2.8 × 1053 ergs over 1 keV - 10 MeV in the GRB rest frame. A probable jet break is detected at ∼2 × 105 s, leading to an estimate of ∼10 51 ergs for the beaming-corrected gamma-ray energy.

AB - Swift triggered on a precursor to the main burst of GRB 061121 (z = 1.314), allowing observations to be made from the optical to gamma-ray bands. Many other telescopes, including Konus-Wind, XMM-Newton, ROTSE, and the Faulkes Telescope North, also observed the burst. The gamma-ray, X-ray, and UV/optical emission all showed a peak ∼75 s after the trigger, although the optical and X-ray afterglow components also appear early on, before or during the main peak. Spectral evolution was seen throughout the burst, with the prompt emission showing a clear positive correlation between brightness and hardness. The SED of the prompt emission, stretching from 1 eV up to 1 MeV, is very flat, with a peak in the flux density at ∼1 keV. The optical to X-ray spectra at this time are better fitted by a broken, rather than single, power law, similar to previous results for X-ray flares. The SED shows spectral hardening as the afterglow evolves with time. This behavior might be a symptom of self-Comptonization, although circumstellar densities similar to those found in the cores of molecular clouds would be required. The afterglow also decays too slowly to be accounted for by the standard models. Although the precursor and main emission show different spectral lags, both are consistent with the lag-luminosity correlation for long bursts. GRB 061121 is the instantaneously brightest long burst yet detected by Swift. Using a combination of Swift and Konus-Wind data, we estimate an isotropic energy of 2.8 × 1053 ergs over 1 keV - 10 MeV in the GRB rest frame. A probable jet break is detected at ∼2 × 105 s, leading to an estimate of ∼10 51 ergs for the beaming-corrected gamma-ray energy.

KW - Gamma Rays: Bursts, X-rays: individual (GRB 061121), Astrophysics

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