A simple, single-masked gold interdigitated triple-microelectrodes biosensor is presented by taking the advantage of an effective self-assembled monolayer (SAM) using an amino-silanization technique for the early detection of a prostate cancer's biomarker, the prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Unlike most interdigitated electrode biosensors, biorecognition happens in between the interdigitated electrodes, which enhances the sensitivity and limit of detection of the sensor. Using the Faradaic mode electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique to quantify the PSA antigen, the developed sensing platform demonstrates a logarithmic detection of PSA ranging from 0.5 ng/ml to 5000 ng/ml, an estimated LOD down to 0.51 ng/ml in the serum, and a good sensor's reproducibility. The sensor's detection range covers the clinical threshold value at 4 ng/ml and the crucial diagnosis ‘grey zone’ of 4–10 ng/ml of PSA in serum for an accurate cancer diagnosis. The selectivity test revealed an excellent discrimination of other competing proteins, with a recorded detection signals at 5 ng/ml PSA as high as 7-fold increase versus the human serum albumin (HSA) and 8-fold increase versus the human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2). The stability test showed an acceptable stability of the aptasensor recorded at six (6) days before the detection signal started degrading below 10% of the peak detection value. The developed sensing scheme is proven to exhibit a great potential as a portable prostate cancer biosensor, also as a universal platform for bio-molecular sensing with the versatility to implement nanoparticles and other surface chemistry for various applications.
- Interdigitated microelectrodes
- Prostate-specific antigen
- self-assembled monolayers
Ibau, C., Md Arshad, K., Gopinath, S., Nuzaihan, M., Fathil, M., & Estrela, P. (2019). Gold interdigitated triple-microelectrodes for label-free prognosticative aptasensing of prostate cancer biomarker in serum. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 136, 118-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.04.048