God and the Government

Testing a Compensatory Control Mechanism for the Support of External Systems

Aaron C. Kay, Danielle Gaucher, Jamie L. Napier, Mitchell J. Callan, Kristin Laurin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

324 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The authors propose that the high levels of support often observed for governmental and religious systems can be explained, in part, as a means of coping with the threat posed by chronically or situationally fluctuating levels of perceived personal control. Three experiments demonstrated a causal relation between lowered perceptions of personal control and the defense of external systems, including increased beliefs in the existence of a controlling God (Studies 1 and 2) and defense of the overarching socio-political system (Study 4). A 4th experiment (Study 5) showed the converse to be true: A challenge to the usefulness of external systems of control led to increased illusory perceptions of personal control. In addition, a cross-national data set demonstrated that lower levels of personal control are associated with higher support for governmental control (across 67 nations; Study 3). Each study identified theoretically consistent moderators and mediators of these effects. The implications of these results for understanding why a high percentage of the population believes in the existence of God, and why people so often endorse and justify their socio-political systems, are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18-35
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume95
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2008

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Political Systems
god
political system
Population
experiment
moderator
coping
threat

Keywords

  • control
  • God
  • governmental support
  • religion
  • system justification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science

Cite this

God and the Government : Testing a Compensatory Control Mechanism for the Support of External Systems. / Kay, Aaron C.; Gaucher, Danielle; Napier, Jamie L.; Callan, Mitchell J.; Laurin, Kristin.

In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 95, No. 1, 07.2008, p. 18-35.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kay, Aaron C. ; Gaucher, Danielle ; Napier, Jamie L. ; Callan, Mitchell J. ; Laurin, Kristin. / God and the Government : Testing a Compensatory Control Mechanism for the Support of External Systems. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2008 ; Vol. 95, No. 1. pp. 18-35.
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