We describe the geometry of bend distortions in liquid crystals and their fundamental degeneracies, which we call β lines; these represent a new class of linelike topological defect in twist-bend nematics. We present constructions for smecticlike textures containing screw and edge dislocations and also for vortexlike structures of double twist and Skyrmions. We analyze their local geometry and global structure, showing that their intersection with any surface is twice the Skyrmion number. Finally, we demonstrate how arbitrary knots and links can be created and describe them in terms of merons, giving a geometric perspective on the fractionalization of Skyrmions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)