Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes diverse human infections including chronic airway infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Comparing the genomes of CF and non-CF PA isolates has great potential to identify the genetic basis of pathogenicity. To gain a deeper understanding of PA adaptation in CF airways, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 1,001 PA genomes. Genetic variations identified among CF isolates were categorized into (i) alterations in protein-coding regions, either large- or small-scale, and (ii) polymorphic variation in intergenic regions. We introduced each CF-associated genetic alteration into the genome of PAO1, a prototype PA strain, and validated the outcomes experimentally. Loci readily mutated among CF isolates included genes encoding a probable sulfatase, a probable TonB-dependent receptor (PA2332~PA2336), L-cystine transporter (YecS, PA0313), and a probable transcriptional regulator (PA5438). A promoter region of a heme/hemoglobin uptake outer membrane receptor (PhuR, PA4710) was also different between the CF and non-CF isolate groups. Our analysis highlights ways in which the PA genome evolves to survive and persist within the context of chronic CF infection.