Genes controlling and mediating locomotion behavior of the zebrafish embryo and larva

M Granato, F J M vanEeden, U Schach, T Trowe, M Brand, Makoto Furutani-Seiki, P Haffter, M Hammerschmidt, C P Heisenberg, Y J Jiang, D A Kane, R N Kelsh, M C Mullins, J Odenthal, C NussleinVolhard

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Abstract

Zebrafish embryos and larvae have stage-specific patterns of motility or locomotion, Two embryonic structures accomplish this behavior: the central nervous system (CNS) and skeletal muscles. To identify genes that are functionally involved in mediating and controlling different patterns of embryonic and larval motility, we included a simple touch response test in our zebrafish large-scale genetic screen, In total we identified 166 mutants with specific defects in embryonic motility. These mutants fall into 14 phenotypically distinct groups comprising at least 48 genes, Here we describe the various phenotypic groups including mutants with no or reduced motility, mechanosensory defective mutants, 'spastic' mutants, circling mutants and motor circuit defective mutants, In 63 mutants, defining 18 genes, striation of semitic muscles is reduced, Phenotypic analysis provides evidence that these 18 genes have distinct and consecutive functions during semitic muscle development. The genes sloth (slo) and frozen (fro) already act during myoblast differentiation, while 13 genes appear to function later, in the formation of myofibers and the organization of sarcomeres, Mutations in four other genes result in muscle-specific degeneration, 103 mutations, defining at least 30 genes, cause no obvious defects in muscle formation and may instead affect neuronal development. Analysis of the behavioral defects suggests that these genes participate in the diverse locomotion patterns observed, such as touch response, rhythmic tail movements, equilibrium control, or that they simply confer general motility to the animal, In some of these mutants specific defects in the developing nervous system are detected, Mutations in two genes, nevermind (nev) and macho (mao), affect axonal projection in the optic tectum, whereas axon formation and elongation of motorneurons are disrupted by mutations in the diwanka (diw) and the unplugged (unp) genes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-413
Number of pages15
JournalDevelopment
Volume123
Publication statusPublished - 1996

Fingerprint

Zebrafish
Locomotion
Larva
Embryonic Structures
Genes
Mutation
Touch
Muscles
Sloths
Sarcomeres
Muscle Spasticity
Muscle Development
Superior Colliculi
Myoblasts
Nervous System
Axons
Tail
Skeletal Muscle
Central Nervous System

Keywords

  • motorneurons
  • muscle development
  • reciprocal inhibition
  • spinal cord
  • zebrafish
  • motor circuits
  • locomotion
  • neuronal development

Cite this

Granato, M., vanEeden, F. J. M., Schach, U., Trowe, T., Brand, M., Furutani-Seiki, M., ... NussleinVolhard, C. (1996). Genes controlling and mediating locomotion behavior of the zebrafish embryo and larva. Development, 123, 399-413.

Genes controlling and mediating locomotion behavior of the zebrafish embryo and larva. / Granato, M; vanEeden, F J M; Schach, U; Trowe, T; Brand, M; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kane, D A; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; NussleinVolhard, C.

In: Development, Vol. 123, 1996, p. 399-413.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Granato, M, vanEeden, FJM, Schach, U, Trowe, T, Brand, M, Furutani-Seiki, M, Haffter, P, Hammerschmidt, M, Heisenberg, CP, Jiang, YJ, Kane, DA, Kelsh, RN, Mullins, MC, Odenthal, J & NussleinVolhard, C 1996, 'Genes controlling and mediating locomotion behavior of the zebrafish embryo and larva', Development, vol. 123, pp. 399-413.
Granato M, vanEeden FJM, Schach U, Trowe T, Brand M, Furutani-Seiki M et al. Genes controlling and mediating locomotion behavior of the zebrafish embryo and larva. Development. 1996;123:399-413.
Granato, M ; vanEeden, F J M ; Schach, U ; Trowe, T ; Brand, M ; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto ; Haffter, P ; Hammerschmidt, M ; Heisenberg, C P ; Jiang, Y J ; Kane, D A ; Kelsh, R N ; Mullins, M C ; Odenthal, J ; NussleinVolhard, C. / Genes controlling and mediating locomotion behavior of the zebrafish embryo and larva. In: Development. 1996 ; Vol. 123. pp. 399-413.
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abstract = "Zebrafish embryos and larvae have stage-specific patterns of motility or locomotion, Two embryonic structures accomplish this behavior: the central nervous system (CNS) and skeletal muscles. To identify genes that are functionally involved in mediating and controlling different patterns of embryonic and larval motility, we included a simple touch response test in our zebrafish large-scale genetic screen, In total we identified 166 mutants with specific defects in embryonic motility. These mutants fall into 14 phenotypically distinct groups comprising at least 48 genes, Here we describe the various phenotypic groups including mutants with no or reduced motility, mechanosensory defective mutants, 'spastic' mutants, circling mutants and motor circuit defective mutants, In 63 mutants, defining 18 genes, striation of semitic muscles is reduced, Phenotypic analysis provides evidence that these 18 genes have distinct and consecutive functions during semitic muscle development. The genes sloth (slo) and frozen (fro) already act during myoblast differentiation, while 13 genes appear to function later, in the formation of myofibers and the organization of sarcomeres, Mutations in four other genes result in muscle-specific degeneration, 103 mutations, defining at least 30 genes, cause no obvious defects in muscle formation and may instead affect neuronal development. Analysis of the behavioral defects suggests that these genes participate in the diverse locomotion patterns observed, such as touch response, rhythmic tail movements, equilibrium control, or that they simply confer general motility to the animal, In some of these mutants specific defects in the developing nervous system are detected, Mutations in two genes, nevermind (nev) and macho (mao), affect axonal projection in the optic tectum, whereas axon formation and elongation of motorneurons are disrupted by mutations in the diwanka (diw) and the unplugged (unp) genes.",
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T1 - Genes controlling and mediating locomotion behavior of the zebrafish embryo and larva

AU - Granato, M

AU - vanEeden, F J M

AU - Schach, U

AU - Trowe, T

AU - Brand, M

AU - Furutani-Seiki, Makoto

AU - Haffter, P

AU - Hammerschmidt, M

AU - Heisenberg, C P

AU - Jiang, Y J

AU - Kane, D A

AU - Kelsh, R N

AU - Mullins, M C

AU - Odenthal, J

AU - NussleinVolhard, C

PY - 1996

Y1 - 1996

N2 - Zebrafish embryos and larvae have stage-specific patterns of motility or locomotion, Two embryonic structures accomplish this behavior: the central nervous system (CNS) and skeletal muscles. To identify genes that are functionally involved in mediating and controlling different patterns of embryonic and larval motility, we included a simple touch response test in our zebrafish large-scale genetic screen, In total we identified 166 mutants with specific defects in embryonic motility. These mutants fall into 14 phenotypically distinct groups comprising at least 48 genes, Here we describe the various phenotypic groups including mutants with no or reduced motility, mechanosensory defective mutants, 'spastic' mutants, circling mutants and motor circuit defective mutants, In 63 mutants, defining 18 genes, striation of semitic muscles is reduced, Phenotypic analysis provides evidence that these 18 genes have distinct and consecutive functions during semitic muscle development. The genes sloth (slo) and frozen (fro) already act during myoblast differentiation, while 13 genes appear to function later, in the formation of myofibers and the organization of sarcomeres, Mutations in four other genes result in muscle-specific degeneration, 103 mutations, defining at least 30 genes, cause no obvious defects in muscle formation and may instead affect neuronal development. Analysis of the behavioral defects suggests that these genes participate in the diverse locomotion patterns observed, such as touch response, rhythmic tail movements, equilibrium control, or that they simply confer general motility to the animal, In some of these mutants specific defects in the developing nervous system are detected, Mutations in two genes, nevermind (nev) and macho (mao), affect axonal projection in the optic tectum, whereas axon formation and elongation of motorneurons are disrupted by mutations in the diwanka (diw) and the unplugged (unp) genes.

AB - Zebrafish embryos and larvae have stage-specific patterns of motility or locomotion, Two embryonic structures accomplish this behavior: the central nervous system (CNS) and skeletal muscles. To identify genes that are functionally involved in mediating and controlling different patterns of embryonic and larval motility, we included a simple touch response test in our zebrafish large-scale genetic screen, In total we identified 166 mutants with specific defects in embryonic motility. These mutants fall into 14 phenotypically distinct groups comprising at least 48 genes, Here we describe the various phenotypic groups including mutants with no or reduced motility, mechanosensory defective mutants, 'spastic' mutants, circling mutants and motor circuit defective mutants, In 63 mutants, defining 18 genes, striation of semitic muscles is reduced, Phenotypic analysis provides evidence that these 18 genes have distinct and consecutive functions during semitic muscle development. The genes sloth (slo) and frozen (fro) already act during myoblast differentiation, while 13 genes appear to function later, in the formation of myofibers and the organization of sarcomeres, Mutations in four other genes result in muscle-specific degeneration, 103 mutations, defining at least 30 genes, cause no obvious defects in muscle formation and may instead affect neuronal development. Analysis of the behavioral defects suggests that these genes participate in the diverse locomotion patterns observed, such as touch response, rhythmic tail movements, equilibrium control, or that they simply confer general motility to the animal, In some of these mutants specific defects in the developing nervous system are detected, Mutations in two genes, nevermind (nev) and macho (mao), affect axonal projection in the optic tectum, whereas axon formation and elongation of motorneurons are disrupted by mutations in the diwanka (diw) and the unplugged (unp) genes.

KW - motorneurons

KW - muscle development

KW - reciprocal inhibition

KW - spinal cord

KW - zebrafish

KW - motor circuits

KW - locomotion

KW - neuronal development

M3 - Article

VL - 123

SP - 399

EP - 413

JO - Development

JF - Development

SN - 0950-1991

ER -