We present the delivery of high energy microsecond pulses through a hollow-core negative-curvature fiber at 2.94 μm. The energy densities delivered far exceed those required for biological tissue manipulation and are of the order of 2300 J/cm2. Tissue ablation was demonstrated on hard and soft tissue in dry and aqueous conditions with no detrimental effects to the fiber or catastrophic damage to the end facets. The energy is guided in a well confined single mode allowing for a small and controllable focused spot delivered flexibly to the point of operation. Hence,a mechanically and chemically robust alternative to the existing Er:YAG delivery systems is proposed which paves the way for new routes for minimally invasive surgical laser procedures.
Urich, A., Maier, R. R. J., Yu, F., Knight, J. C., Hand, D. P., & Shephard, J. D. (2013). Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 μm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: A new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures. Biomedical Optics Express, 4(2), 193-205. https://doi.org/10.1364/BOE.4.000193