Features of Immittance Spectra as Performance Indicators for Cement-Based Concretes

W. John McCarter, Benny Suryanto, Hussameldin Taha Abdalgadir, Gerry Starrs, Jaehwan Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (SciVal)


The design for durability and performance-based standards and specifications for reinforced concrete infrastructure, is limited by the lack of rapid, science-based test methods for characterizing the deterioration resistance of concrete. In this paper, this issue is addressed though the application of two-point electrical impedance measurements taken within the frequency range 100Hz-10MHz. Data are presented for a range of industry-standard cement-based concrete mixes with and without supplementary cementitious materials (SCM's). The Nyquist (-iZ"(ω) vs Z'(ω) and Bode (Z*(ω) and θ vs frequency) formats clearly highlight the frequency dependence of the electrical response, however, when presented in the form of permittivity and conductivity, a region of dispersion was evident over the entire frequency range for all concretes. Features of this response, which could be gainfully exploited as durability indices for assessing the long-term performance of concrete, are identified and discussed. A range of formalisms is presented, and it is shown that within this frequency range the conductivity was found to obey Jonscher's universal power-law. Two novel durability parameters are presented based on features of Jonscher's model and, from a practical viewpoint, the power-law model can be evaluated using conductivity measurements obtained at three, easily measured, spot frequencies (viz. 10kHz, 1MHz and 10MHz).

Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvances in Cement Research
Early online date11 Apr 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Apr 2023


  • Characterisation Techniques
  • Concrete
  • Durability
  • Electrical Properties
  • Supplementary Cementitious Materials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)


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