Factors driving pathogenicity vs. prevalence of amphibian panzootic chytridiomycosis in Iberia

Susan F. Walker, Jaime Bosch, Virgilio Gomez, Trenton W. J. Garner, Andrew A. Cunningham, Dirk S. Schmeller, Miguel Ninyerola, Daniel A. Henk, Cedric Ginestet, Christian-philippe Arthur, Matthew C. Fisher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Amphibian chytridiomycosis is a disease caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Whether Bd is a new emerging pathogen (the novel pathogen hypothesis; NPH) or whether environmental changes are exacerbating the host-pathogen dynamic (the endemic pathogen hypothesis; EPH) is debated. To disentangle these hypotheses we map the distribution of Bd and chytridiomycosis across the Iberian Peninsula centred on the first European outbreak site. We find that the infection-free state is the norm across both sample sites and individuals. To analyse this dataset, we use Bayesian zero-inflated binomial models to test whether environmental variables can account for heterogeneity in both the presence and prevalence of Bd, and heterogeneity in the occurrence of the disease, chytridiomycosis. We also search for signatures of Bd-spread within Iberia using genotyping. We show (1) no evidence for any relationship between the presence of Bd and environmental variables, (2) a weak relationship between environmental variables and the conditional prevalence of infection, (3) stage-dependent heterogeneity in the infection risk, (4) a strong association between altitude and chytridiomycosis, (5) multiple Iberian genotypes and (6) recent introduction and spread of a single genotype of Bd in the Pyrenees. We conclude that the NPH is consistent with the emergence of Bd in Iberia. However, epizootic forcing of infection is tied to location and shaped by both biotic and abiotic variables. Therefore, the population-level consequences of disease introduction are explained by EPH-like processes. This study demonstrates the power of combining surveillance and molecular data to ascertain the drivers of new emerging infections diseases.
LanguageEnglish
Pages372-382
JournalEcology Letters
Volume13
Issue number3
DOIs
StatusPublished - 1 Mar 2010

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pathogenicity
Iberian Peninsula
amphibian
amphibians
pathogen
pathogens
infection
environmental factors
genotype
disease occurrence
emerging diseases
genotyping
environmental change
fungi
fungus
monitoring
testing
sampling

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Walker, S. F., Bosch, J., Gomez, V., Garner, T. W. J., Cunningham, A. A., Schmeller, D. S., ... Fisher, M. C. (2010). Factors driving pathogenicity vs. prevalence of amphibian panzootic chytridiomycosis in Iberia. Ecology Letters, 13(3), 372-382. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.2010.13.issue-3

Factors driving pathogenicity vs. prevalence of amphibian panzootic chytridiomycosis in Iberia. / Walker, Susan F.; Bosch, Jaime; Gomez, Virgilio; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Schmeller, Dirk S.; Ninyerola, Miguel; Henk, Daniel A.; Ginestet, Cedric; Arthur, Christian-philippe; Fisher, Matthew C.

In: Ecology Letters, Vol. 13, No. 3, 01.03.2010, p. 372-382.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Walker, SF, Bosch, J, Gomez, V, Garner, TWJ, Cunningham, AA, Schmeller, DS, Ninyerola, M, Henk, DA, Ginestet, C, Arthur, C & Fisher, MC 2010, 'Factors driving pathogenicity vs. prevalence of amphibian panzootic chytridiomycosis in Iberia', Ecology Letters, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 372-382. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.2010.13.issue-3
Walker SF, Bosch J, Gomez V, Garner TWJ, Cunningham AA, Schmeller DS et al. Factors driving pathogenicity vs. prevalence of amphibian panzootic chytridiomycosis in Iberia. Ecology Letters. 2010 Mar 1;13(3):372-382. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.2010.13.issue-3
Walker, Susan F. ; Bosch, Jaime ; Gomez, Virgilio ; Garner, Trenton W. J. ; Cunningham, Andrew A. ; Schmeller, Dirk S. ; Ninyerola, Miguel ; Henk, Daniel A. ; Ginestet, Cedric ; Arthur, Christian-philippe ; Fisher, Matthew C. / Factors driving pathogenicity vs. prevalence of amphibian panzootic chytridiomycosis in Iberia. In: Ecology Letters. 2010 ; Vol. 13, No. 3. pp. 372-382.
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