Face damage growth of sandwich composites under compressive loading: Experiments, analytical and finite element modeling

Moustafa Kinawy, Felice Rubino, Giacomo Canale, Roberto Citarella, Richard Butler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sandwich panels with composite laminate skins having [(±45C)2,(0C,0G)4,(±45C)2] stacking sequence (subscript C for carbon fibers, G for glass) and containing barely visible impact damage (BVID) induced on the whole sandwich structure impacted at low energy, were tested in edge after-impact-compression with load direction parallel and transversal to the fibers direction (0-dir.). The morphology of impact damage on the sandwich structure was determined by using ultrasonic C- Scan and visual observation of laminate cross section. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to measure the delamination evolution during the test. Two different failure behaviors were observed in two different impacted panels. Panel with fibers oriented transversally to the com-pressive load showed an opening (Mode-I) propagation of a delamination, while the panel with fibers parallel to the load showed shear (Mode-II) propagation. The static load such to determine local buckling of the composite face and failure was experimentally measured. An analytical model was implemented to predict the static strength of laminate with Mode-I opening. An FE model was instead built to predict the local buckling failure mode of the laminate with BVID, which is the first phenomenon to appear. The results of the analytical model and the numerical simulation correlate well with the test.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5553
Issue number19
Early online date24 Sep 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021


  • Composite sandwich
  • Critical delamination strain
  • Local buckling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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